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rank-and-file who had lost their livelihood, as well as the ambition of generals who could, in a moment, brush them aside. Barrasand Rewbellwere notoriously corrupt themselves and screened corruption in others. The patronage of the directors was ill-bestowed, and the general maladministration heightened their unpopularity.The constitutional party in the legislature desired tolerationof the nonjuring clergy, the repeal of the laws against the relatives of the émigrés, and some merciful discrimination toward the émigrés themselves. The directors baffled all such endeavours. On the other hand, the socialistconspiracy of Babeufwas easily quelled. Little was done to improve the finances, and the assignatscontinued to fall in value.The new régimemet opposition from remaining Jacobins and the royalists. The army suppressed riots and counter-revolutionary activities. In this way the army and its successful general, Napoleon Bonaparteeventually gained much power.On 9 November 1799 (18 Brumaire of the Year VIII) Napoleon Bonapartestaged the coup of 18 Brumairewhich installed the Consulate. This effectively led to Bonaparte's dictatorship and eventually (in 1804) to his proclamation as Empereur(emperor), which brought to a close the specifically republicanphase of the French Revolution.Role of womenWomen had no political rights in pre-Revolutionary France; they couldn’t vote or hold any political office. They were considered “passive” citizens; forced to rely on men to determine what was best for them in the government. It was the men who defined these categories, and women were forced to accept male domination in the political sphere.The Encyclopédie, published by a group of philosophes over the years 1751–1777, summarized French male beliefs of women.A woman was a “failed man,” the fetus not fully developed in the womb. “Women’s testimony is in general light and subject to variation; this is why it is taken more seriously than that of men” as opposed to men, upon whom “Nature seemsto have conferred… the right to govern.” In general, “men are more capable than women of ably governing particular
matters”.Instead, women were taught to be committed to their husbands and “all his interests… [to show] attention and care… [and] sincere and discreet zeal for his salvation.” A woman’s education often consisted of learning to be a good wife and mother; as a result women were not supposed to be involved in the political sphere, as the limit of their influence was the raising of future citizens.When the Revolution opened, some women struck forcefully, using the volatile political climate to assert their active natures. In the time of the Revolution, women could not be kept out of the political sphere; they swore oaths of loyalty, “solemn declarations of patriotic allegiance, [and] affirmations of the political responsibilities of citizenship.” Throughout the Revolution, women such as Pauline Léon and her Society for Revolutionary Republican Women fought for the right to bear arms, used armed force and rioted.Feminist agitation