In production and consumption increasing efficiency

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In production and consumption (increasing efficiency and declining demand for oil) o In alternative fuels (substitution of oil) - Efficiency and decoupling Resilience - Peak oil is coming, better prepare - What make society vulnerable o Shifts in oil prices likely to be rapid and unpredictable o Socio-economic systems built for oil are particularly vulnerable Cities, transportation, globalisation of production and consumption o What can promote resilience? Diversity of energy sources Localisation Transition towns initiatives Political Ecology - Peak oil isn’t the real question.. who benefits form extraction and who bears the cost inequities at point of extraction and in consumption - In 2014, energy usage of 1 billion people in Africa = that of Belgium - Will the energy apartheid grow? o Between countries o Within countries Deep Ecology - Need to dramatically reduce consumption o “one of the things that make peak oil so difficult to comprehend is the inability of most people to visualize a radically different existence. This is perfectly understandable. Most people visualize their future quite similar to their current existence.” o “peak energy turns this understand on its head: it’s an illusion. Only after someone has taken this sucker punch to the psyche and accepted it, can true preparations begin” LECTURE 4 – Agriculture The challenge Facing Agriculture - With yields flattening, the demand for animal protein growing, the population increasing and incomes improving, and an increasing rate of land degradation, the headwinds against the food system reaching its critical goal are almost insurmountable - Amplified by climate change: o Producing more and protecting better in a harsher climate while reducing greenhouse gas emissions is a tall order Agriculture
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- Farming is the ‘ongoing interaction and mutual transformation of people and living nature - Settled agriculture dates back 10,000 years - Sporadic bursts in productivity o 1750s English agricultural revolution o initiation of competitive, productivity driven agriculture Agricultural Modernisation - agriculture in the developing world needs to become more intensive, efficient and technologically advanced o conquer the ‘yield gap’ - To do so it needs o To become more commercially oriented and competitive o Better integrate producers into international markets and value chains o Transfer excess labour out of agriculture into other economic sectors to create a more rational usage of labour Contrasting opinions on how to agriculture - Heavily mechanized, driven by oil, very productive - Family owned, physical labour, microagriculture Modernization: micro should turn into bigger and vice versa Intensification - The imperative to continually intensify biological productivity by o Simplifying o Standardising o Speeding up production - Necessitates the overriding of natural constraints and barriers How to Intensify - Creation of extensive monocultures to fit economies of scale through specialised production of a narrow range of crop species o
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