Closed small shopkeepers needed skilled craftsmen

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Closed small shopkeepers – needed skilled craftsmen – people  deeply resented this. Enjoyed owning their own business, not  being salaried workers etc. 2) High production and labor peace – army acted as mediator between  big business and laborers Big divisions (countrymen vs. town etc.) exacerbated tensions  between these groups Industrial enterprises reaped enormous rewards, raised prices –  big profits Big companies got bigger, smaller companies bypassed Mood of resentment in farm population – family farmers Food rationed, price controlled Government regulators went through farms to assure they were not  hiding food and selling in black market Price of fertilizers went up, prices for equipment went up  Encouraged used of modern, industrial methods – had to spend more  money than was available to them Government sided with workers in cities to ensure they had adequate  access to food White Collar Employee – most importantly NOT  blue collar, were not paid  wages, but salaries. During war however, wages dropped
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Civil Servants (reps of German State) – carried prestige in Germany, wore  uniforms, had job stability – during war, saw real income decline precipitously  Both White collar and civil servants felt that they were bearing too  much of the burden from the Government/War Blue collar employee – nominal income went up (real income did not), forced  to work longer hours, poor conditions, less food Rather than feeling benefitted by increased wages, also felt mistreated 1916 – Food crisis in Germany  ¾  million Germans died of starvation or complications due to diet young women and girls suffered the most – lowest on the food  rationing scale CIVILIANS dying, not soldiers 1917 – labor strikes 1917 – Erzberger, visited Sweden, discovered that Germany was in trouble  (outside of German propaganda) Made this info public to parliament Social democrats, left liberals and (someone else?) – wanted to bring  an end to the war in light of this info Social democrats – demand for political change, one person one vote 1917 – Bolshevik Revolution – led to withdrawal from Russia lost lands in the east 1917 (early 1918) – Weakening British and French resolve Some positive signs, but Germany was at the end of its reserves –  strategy to inflict enough French casualties so they had to withdraw Americans enter war late – provide added enthusiasm  Spring 1918: German offensive that was supposed to break through Western  front Stopped short of any major breakthrough
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Christopher Reinemann
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