Formal leader put organization goals first informal

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Formal leader put organization goals first, informal leader satisfy personal needs Competition
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12 o Group solidarity increases o Competing groups create hostile environment o Winning group has “fat and happy” attitude o Losing group looks for someone/something to blame Conformity o Behavioral guidelines ensure group’s successful functioning and survival o Punitive measures control group and ensure members pursue common objectives o Group thinking, members tend to hold same values, attitudes, prejudices, preferences Identify and explain possible obstacles in respect of worker participation in South Africa. Make recommendations on how they can be overcome Obstacles to the establishment of cooperative relationships are the following: o Labour and employers viewed economic issues, productivity and internationalisation from different perspectives o low literacy levels of workers o a poor understanding on the part of workers of business and business principles o mistrust between workers and management o mistrust between trade unions and management o workers who believe that bread-and-butter issues are not being addressed by trade unions and management Trade unions and workers may be wary of any changes which attempt to involve them in management decision making, for the following reasons: o There is a suspicion that participative structures will undermine the militancy and membership of trade unions. o The movement towards a possible balancing or sharing of power is seen as an illusion, since power imbalances still exist and trade unions do not have adequate resources for effectively disputing the managerial prerogative. o Workers and trade unions may feel that they are being compelled/forced by employers to accept participative structures. o Past experience has shown that participative strategies have caused division among trade union members, because some workers have benefited more than others. Recommendations o Training o Effective communication o Addressing worker participation in labour relations strategies and policies o Improved relations between workers, trade unions and management Explain five different methods or techniques of worker participation and involvement Participation through suggestion When individual workers try to influence employer decision-making directly, normally at a localised level (such as plant or workshop level). Often concerns decisions which are of immediate relevance to a worker's job. Emphasis usually on day-to-day decision-making of restricted relevance within the organisation as a whole. So-called speak-up sessions for workers, or suggestion box systems, may be used. Participation through quality circles Popular technique for getting lower-level employees (workers or non-managers) involved upward problem solving and decision making. Quality circle essentially a workers' discussion group, usually consists of six to ten workers from same section or department.
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