F a l pen avoidance of hiatus in maori and hawaiian

  • No School
  • AA 1
  • 79

This preview shows page 28 - 40 out of 79 pages.

F / \ / | \ /|\ ÷ A l pen
Image of page 28
Avoidance of hiatus In Maori and Hawaiian (in some contexts, since Hawaiian has glide formation in some other environments), faithfulness wins. There is just no rule repairing hiatus. In a representational model, syllables do not need onsets.
Image of page 29
Avoidance of hiatus Comparing French, German and Maori, the fact that syllable templates are different in the three languages must be formulated as an independent fact of the language. It is an accident that Maori tolerates more onsetless syllables than English and German and that German requires onsets for their stressed syllables.
Image of page 30
Kind of conflicts found in phonology 2. Markedness vs. markedness Different modules of phonology make different predictions. One aspect of phonology can require some kind of unmarked structure and another aspect some other unmarked structure for the same segmental or syllabic material.
Image of page 31
Metrical phonology A good place to look for conflicts between 2 kinds of markedness is Metrical phonology. Trochaic-Iambic Law (Hayes 1995) A canonical trochee ( ' ) consists of two equal syllables, in which both s have the same weight, (mono- or bimoraic, or just syllables). In contrast, a canonical iamb ( ' ) consists of unequal syllables: is lighter than '
Image of page 32
Metrical phonology This requirement is conflicting with the requirement that all syllables have the structure CV. To produce good iambs, French lengthens the last syllable but Beduin Arabic reduces the first syllable. Kitib becomes k.tib (McCarthy 2000) The first syllable looses its vowel and becomes badly marked. However it is more important for the language to respect the requirement of a good iamb. Final [b] is extrametrical.
Image of page 33
Metrical phonology A purely derivational approach to phonology has problems with metrical facts. SPE proposed a complex system of ordered rules to account for stress in English, in which stress was an ordinary feature [±stress] but as Liberman & Prince showed, some of the basic properties of stress cannot be accounted for in such a model.
Image of page 34
Metrical phonology The special properties of stress (in comparison with segmental features) - stress is associated with a syllable (not to a segment) - relativity (a syllable is stressed only in comparison with an adjacent unstressed or less stressed one) - no invariant phonetic correlate - no assimilation
Image of page 35
Metrical phonology Representational approach of Liberman & Prince: Metrical tree w s / \ / \ w s / s / \ / \ / / \ s w s w w s w Belgian farmers grow turnips
Image of page 36
Metrical phonology Metrical grid x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Belgian farmers grow turnips Both metrical methods were heavily loaded with derivational methods
Image of page 37
Metrical phonology Prince (1990), Hayes (1995) and others proposed an inventory of feet, to which syllables associate. However, a great deal of repairs are necessary (extrametricaliy, degenerate feet and the like) OT is more elegant.
Image of page 38
Kind of conflicts found in phonology 3. Alignment and other requirements The last kind of conflict that will be mentioned today has to do with alignment effects.
Image of page 39
Image of page 40

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 79 pages?

  • Fall '19
  • Pitch accent

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors