O gradients describe the cohesion tension theory of

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o Gradients Describe the “Cohesion-Tension Theory of Water Movement”. o Driven by transpiration of water from the leaves; water is pulled up from he soil through the plant and out of the leaves by the water pressure gradient If the water potential in the atmosphere is -1MPa (MPa = megapascals), what do we know about the water potential in the leaf of an actively photosynthesizing plant? Where is the steepest gradient between water potentials usually found (i.e. between which two stages in the “Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum” is the difference between water potentials the greatest? Where is the greatest resistance to water movement found? o What are the components of “Total Leaf Resistance”? Of these components, which one does the plant exert most control over? o Total leaf resistance= boundary layer resistance + internal resistance + stomatal resistance; plant has the most control over stomatal resistance What factors affect the boundary layer resistance of a leaf? o Wind speed, leaf size, leaf shape, leaf surface texture, leaf orientation Why are legumes, with compound leaves and small leaflets, so successful in hot, arid environments? Please define: “Field Capacity”, “Permanent Wilting Point”
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Use Western Ragweed as an example to discuss how Dew can have a significant impact on plants. Use either the White Mtns in Vermont or Coast Redwoods in California as an example to discuss how Fog can have a significant impact on plants. What does the influence of snow on plant communities depend on? What measurements are necessary to construct a “site water budget”? What are the important ways to describe precipitation, from a plant ecology perspective? Although in some years San Francisco and Lubbock have similar total amounts of precipitation, their plant communities are very different. Why? Climate What is climate? What is weather? How are they different? o Climate is all types of weather that occur over tie at a given place- the average o Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a specific time and place What are some of the major factors that exert control over climate? o Latitude, distance from ocean and oceanic currents, ice/snow cover (precipitation, temperature, humidity) Describe how latitude influences climate? o Variation in solar radiation: higher solar radiation at the equator and less variable radiation at the equator o Movement of air across the globe: air circulation patterns vary by latitude How do ocean currents modify regional climates? o Water can absorb and store heat What are some of the ways that terrain can influence the climate? o What is El nino? La nina? Describe what they are, and how El nino changes climates around the globe.
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