Thromboangiitis obliterans Buergers disease is a recurring progressive

Thromboangiitis obliterans buergers disease is a

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Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger’s disease) : is a recurring progressive inflammation and thrombosis (clotting) of small and medium arteries and veins of the hands and feet. Varicose veins : Gnarled, enlarged veins, most commonly appearing in the legs and feet . Venous thromboembolism : is a condition in which a blood clot forms most often in the deep veins of the leg, groin or arm (known as deep vein thrombosis, DVT) and travels in the circulation, lodging in the lungs (known as pulmonary embolism, PE). Venous thrombosis : is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein. Thrombosis is a term for a blood clot occurring inside a blood vessel. A common type of venous thrombosis is a deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which is a blood clot in the deep veins of the leg. Virchow’s triad : describes the three broad categories of factors that are thought to contribute to thrombosis. 1) Hypercoagulability 2) Hemodynamic changes (stasis, turbulence) 3) Endothelial injury/dysfunction. 2. Differentiate between PAD and venous disease.
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3. Describe clinical manifestations, complications, diagnostic studies, collaborative care, and nursing management of PAD. Clinical Manifestations Generally, the severity of the clinical manifestations depends on the site and extent of the blockage and the amount of collateral circulation. Intermittent Claudication The classic symptom of lower extremity PAD is intermittent claudication. Ischemic muscle pain is caused by exercise, resolves within 10 minutes or less with rest, and is reproducible. Ischemic pain is a result of the buildup of lactic acid from anaerobic metabolism. Once the patient stops
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exercising, lactic acid clears and the pain subsides. PAD of the iliac arteries produces claudication in the buttocks and thighs. Calf claudication indicates femoral or popliteal artery involvement. Atypical Leg Symptoms Some patients either have no symptoms or present with atypical leg symptoms. These symptoms may occur in atypical locations (e.g., ankle, foot, hamstring, hip, knee, and shin). Symptoms include: Burning, Heaviness, Pressure, Soreness, Tightness, Weakness, Neuropathy Paresthesia, or numbness or tingling, in the toes or feet may result from nerve tissue ischemia. True peripheral neuropathy more often occurs in patients with diabetes and in those with long-standing ischemia. Neuropathy produces severe shooting or burning pain in the extremity. Neuropathy does not follow particular nerve roots and may be present near ulcerated areas. Gradual, reduced blood flow to neurons produces loss of both pressure and deep pain sensations. Thus, patients may not notice lower extremity injuries. Skin Appearance Skin becomes thin, shiny, and taut, and hair loss occurs on the lower legs. Pedal, popliteal, or femoral pulses are diminished or if pulse heard by Doppler only. Pallor (blanching of the foot) develops in response to leg elevation (elevation pallor).
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