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Lesser trochanter lies on the medial side at the

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lesser trochanterlies on the medial side. At the distal end of the femur are two curvedsurfaces that articulate with the tibia. These are called themedial condyleand thelateralcondyle.Cranial and just proximal to the condyles lies a curved surface called thetrochlea,where thepatella(or kneecap) articulates. Just proximal and to the side of the condyles liethemedial epicondyleandlateral epicondyle,which are projections of bone above thecondyles(epi= "over") that attach the ligaments of the knee joint (see Figure 7-34 on page201 of your textbook). The femur articulates distally with the tibia and patella to form thestiflejoint(the knee in humans). The femur anchors the muscles that bend the stifle joint andstraighten the tarsal joint below.Thepatellais the kneecap. It's the largest of the sesamoid bones in the body and is roughlyoval-shaped, with a slight point on the distal end. The patella isn't directly connected to thefemur. Instead, it's embedded in muscle tendons that straighten the knee joint, and it slides inthe trochlea of the femur (the groove on the cranial and distal aspect of the femur) as thesemuscles contract and relax. The patella allows the tendons of the muscles of the leg's cranialsurface to slide easily over the distal femur and improves the strength and leverage of themuscles that work across the stifle joint. This results in greater force being applied by thesemuscles as they extend the leg as well as greater speed for the animal. In addition to thepatella, carnivores also have small sesamoid bones calledfabellaethat are located caudal tothe distal femur.Thetibiaandfibulaare long bones that lie next to each other just distal to the femur (similar tothe arrangement of the radius and ulna below the humerus in the foreleg). The tibiaarticulates with the femur to form the stifle joint. The tibia also attaches the muscles that bendAnimal Anatomy and Physiology 1 (eBook) (v2) : Lesson 2 : Page 38© 2021 Penn Foster Inc.
the tarsal joint distally. The tibia is much larger than the fibula. If you cut the tibia in halfperpendicular to its axis (in other words, a transverse section of the bone), it looks roughlytriangular. The cranial aspect has a ridge called thetibial crest.At the proximal end of thetibial crest is a projection of bone called thetibial tuberosity,where ligaments connect thepatella to the tibia.The proximal end of the tibia has two condyles—medial and lateral—that articulate with thefemur's medial and lateral condyles. Between the condyles you find theintercondylareminence (inter= "between"), the attachment site for some of the ligaments that connect thefemur to the tibia. The distal tibia articulates with the tarsal bones. On the medial side of thedistal tibia is a bony projection known as themedial malleolus,which helps form the joint withthe tarsal bones.

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Term
Fall
Professor
Ann Swarts
Tags
Bone marrow, Penn Foster Inc

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