Children who were conceived before the toxic cleaning

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children who were conceived before the toxic cleaning were found more likely to repeat a grade, while 334, or 5.5%, of children who were born after the cleaning were likely to repeat a grade. 1. Real-world Population and Causal Hypothesis The population of interest are children living in Florida, who were born between 1994 and 2002 and also attended a Florida public school from 1996 and 2012. The cause variable is whether children were born before (-C) or after (+C) the toxin cleanup. The effect variable is the likeliness to repeat a grade (due to poor academic performance). 2. Sample Data A sample of 6,080 children who lived within one mile of the Superfund area were studied. 12.5% of the children who were born before the cleanup were likely to repeat a grade. In contrast, only 5.5% of children who were born after the cleanup were likely to repeat a grade. 3. Design of Study It is a causal – prospective study because there was no random division into experimental and control groups. 4. Random Sampling Process The assumptions are probably at least somewhat well met because it was written in the NBER Working Papers , which would have peer readers and editors. However, there isn’t any random assignment in prospective studies, so the assumptions of random sampling cannot be met as well as it would for randomized experiments.
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  • Spring '08
  • CONSTANTINE
  • Hazardous waste, Superfund

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