so it must be a co-translational import. From the cytoplasm, get targeted to the ER where it never makes it out. Describe the general process for how substances are moved in/out of a cell in bulk. Exocytosis: if secreting insulin 1. Approach of secretory vesicle to plasma membrane 2. Fusion of membranes 3. Rupture of plasma membrane 4. Discharge of vesicle contents to the outside of the cell. Vesicle membrane becomes integrated into plasma membrane Endocytosis – concentration of what cell takes in. 1. Membrane invaginates, forming a pocket containing macromolecules or other materials from the exterior of the cell 2. Pocket begins to pinch off, enclosing the extracellular material 3. Membrane closes around invaginated material, forming a vesicle 4. Vesicle separates from the plasma membrane, carrying material from the exterior within a membrane derived from the plasma membrane Phagocytosis Example of endocytosis Bring in large bacterium When it touches the PM, it triggers response and PM grows around the stuff trying to come in. Pseupods is the pocket that forms, connects PM, and forms vesicle So vesicle comes in, fuses with (in this example) lysosome, and does whatever it needs to **All three only take place in eukaryotes, not bacteria or archea Describe in general how cells uptake large particles. Describe a redox reaction. Identify the species undergoing oxidation and those undergoing reduction in such a reaction. Harvesting Enery How cells synthesize ATP We obtain E in cells from sun, which converts inorganic to organic molecules We take up organic molecules and they are then converted to ATP that drives cellular work Heat is lost Oxidation- reduction reactions Oxidation can involve:
Cl – In the below reaction, the carbon in glucose is ______, resulting in carbon dioxide. In the below reaction, oxygen is ______, resulting in water.
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