R al d al 2 5 r c d c 2 r d 2 5 r p 4 l 5 constant r

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r al d al 2 5 r c d c 2 . r d 2 5 R p 4 L 5 constant, r c 5 1.72 3 10 2 8 V # m. r al 5 2.63 3 10 2 8 V # m. R 5 r L A 5 r L p d 2 / 4 . r r r 5 RA L 5 1 1.74 V 21 8.30 3 10 2 6 m 2 2 8.25 m 5 1.75 3 10 2 6 V # m. A 5 p r 2 5 p d 2 / 4 5 p 1 3.25 3 10 2 3 m 2 2 / 4 5 8.30 3 10 2 6 m 2 . L 5 1 75 2 p d 5 1 75 2 p 1 3.50 3 10 2 2 m 2 5 8.25 m. p d R 5 r L A . R 5 1 1.72 3 10 2 8 V # m 21 24.0 m 2 p 1 1.025 3 10 2 3 m 2 2 5 0.125 V A 5 p r 2 . r 5 1.72 3 10 2 8 V # m. R 5 r L A . L 5 p 1 d / 2 2 2 R r 5 p 1 1.628 3 10 2 3 m 2 2 1 1.00 V 2 4 1 1.72 3 10 2 8 V # m 2 5 121 m r 5 1.72 3 10 2 8 V # m. R 5 r L A 5 r L p 1 d / 2 2 2 . V s 5 V c 1 r s r c 2 5 1 2.06 3 10 2 4 2 1 1.47 3 10 2 8 V # m 1.72 3 10 2 8 V # m 2 5 1.76 3 10 2 4 V. V s r s 5 V c r c . V r 5 IL A 5 constant, V 5 I r L A . V 5 1 12.5 3 10 2 3 A 21 1.65 3 10 2 2 V 2 5 2.06 3 10 2 4 V. R 5 r L A 5 1 1.72 3 10 2 8 V # m 21 2.00 m 2 p 1 0.814 3 10 2 3 m 2 2 5 1.65 3 10 2 2 V . r 5 1.47 3 10 2 8 V # m. r 5 1.72 3 10 2 8 V # m V 5 IR . 19-2 Chapter 19
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19.13. Set Up: The volume of the wire remains the same when it is stretched. Solve: so Reflect: When the length increases the resistance increases and when the area decreases the resistance increases. 19.14. Set Up: and Solve: 19.15. Set Up: Solve: Reflect: is positive and the resistance increases when the temperature increases. 19.16. Set Up: Solve: 19.17. Set Up: Ohm’s law says where R is a constant. Solve: (a) Ohm’s law says a graph of V versus I is a straight line. That is the case here, so this object obeys Ohm’s law. (b) says R is the slope of a graph of V versus I. (c) Reflect: We can always define but only when R is independent of I does the object obey Ohm’s law. 19.18. Set Up: Ohm’s law says is a constant. Solve: (a) The graph is given in Figure 19.18. Figure 19.18 (b) The graph of versus I is a straight line so obeys Ohm’s law. (c) R is the slope of the graph in part (a). R 5 15.52 V 2 1.94 V 4.00 A 2 0.50 A 5 3.88 V . Nichrome TM V ab 16.0 12.0 8.0 4.0 0.0 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 I 1 A 2 V ab 1 V 2 R 5 V ab I R 5 V / I , R 5 0.60 V 2 0.30 V 4.0 3 10 2 3 A 2 2.0 3 10 2 3 A 5 150 V V 5 IR V 5 IR , T 5 13.8 C° 1 4.0°C 5 17.8°C. T 2 T 0 5 1 R T / R 0 2 2 1 a 5 1 215.8 V / 217.3 V 2 2 1 2 0.00050 1 2 2 1 5 13.8 C°. R T 5 R 0 3 1 1 a 1 T 2 T 0 24 a a 5 R T 2 R 0 R 0 1 T 2 T 0 2 5 1.512 V 2 1.484 V 1 1.484 V 21 34.0°C 2 20.0°C 2 5 1.35 3 10 2 3 1 2 2 1 R T 5 R 0 3 1 1 a 1 T 2 T 0 24 R T 5 1 100.00 V 23 1 1 1 0.00040 1 2 2 1 21 0.0°C 2 11.5°C 24 5 99.54 V R 0 5 100.00 V . T 5 11.5°C T 5 0.0°C. R T 5 R 0 3 1 1 a 1 T 2 T 0 24 . R new 5 r L new A new 5 r 1 3 L 2 A / 3 5 9 r L A 5 9 R . A new 5 L L new A 5 A 3 . LA 5 L new A new . Volume 5 LA L new 5 3 L . R 5 r L A . Current, Resistance, and Direct-Current Circuits 19-3
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19.19. Set Up: Ohm’s law says is a constant. Solve: (a) The graph is given in Figure 19.19a. (b) No. The graph of versus I is not a straight line so does not obey Ohm’s law. (c) The graph of R versus I is given in Figure 19.19b. R is not constant; it decreases as I increases. Figure 19.19 Reflect: Not all materials obey Ohm’s law. 19.20. Set Up: Since the battery has negligible internal resistance, Solve: (a) (b) (c) 19.21.
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