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to make it more difficult for non-technical people to justify choosing a certain courseof action over another course of action (e.g., spending more capital expenditures onproduct Z over product P).3)Data are subject to useless information (commonly known as noise).A singleincorrect or useless variable can corrupt the results and require additional labor hoursto work with the data in order to attain meaningful results.4)User-level data results require interpretation prior to use.Generally, collected dataare converted from text format to data visualizations. Data visualizations assist withidentifying trends and correlations that run the risk of going undetected in text-baseddata.17.Data Visualizationa.Data visualization refers to any effort to help readers or other users understand thesignificance of data by placing it in a visual context, such as a graph or chart. Trends,correlations, or other arrangements that might often be overlooked in text-based datacan be illustrated and thus recognized more easily with data visualization software.Visualizations are for the benefit of decision makers; the computers themselves do notuse or need visualizations for decision making.b.Data visualization tools may provide interactive capabilities that allow users to manipulatedata or drill into the data for what-if-type analysis.1)Visualizations facilitate visual comparisons between data elements, which helpsdecision makers identify patterns, deviations from patterns, and outliers in theanalysis stage. This is accomplished in an efficient manner.2)Visualizations are usually understood by a wider audience because they reduce themessage to its core components and use minimal jargon.3)Visualization options include histograms, boxplots, scatter plots, dot plots, tables,dashboards, bar charts, pie charts, line charts, and bubble charts. Additionally,adding colors and shapes assists with more effectively communicating results bydecreasing the burden of decision makers interpreting vast amounts of informationand instead concentrating on the more vital information.a)Business intelligence tools include the capability of grouping the variousvisualization options onto a digital dashboard. The dashboard allows the userto pre-select the chart types he or she will use for assistance with decisionmaking.