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experiences and contextual factors (eg: stress and abuse) can have long-lasting effects on an organism by impacting on gene expression and consequently manifesting themselves in behavioral changes.ReferencesBelfer, I., Greco, C. M., Lokshin, A., Vulakovich, K., Landsittel, D., Dai, F., … Chelly, J. E. (2014). The design and methods of genetic studies on acute and chronic postoperative pain in patients after total knee replacement.Pain Medicine,15(9), 1590–1602. Kerr JI, & Burri A. (2017). Genetic and epigenetic epidemiology of chronic widespread pain.Journal of Pain Research, Vol Volume 10, Pp 2021-2029 (2017), 2021. Retrieved from ?direct=true&db=edsdoj&AN=edsdoj.19490b4bbd49079659018817549433&site=eds-live&scope=siteWEEK 6Week 6 discussionRespiratory SystemMain PostRespiratory Alterations in ChildrenIt is essential for a healthcare practitioner to fully understand the pathophysiology of respiratory disorders in order to appropriately diagnose and treat their patients. For the sake of this discussion, I am going to describe the disorder and the underlying respiratory alteration associated with the type of cough in scenario two. Then, I am going to explain the
pathophysiology of the respiratory alteration. Lastly, I am going to explain how the factors of gender and genetics might impact the disorder.The second scenario for this week’s discussion, Kevin is a 6-year-old boy who is brought in for evaluation by his parents. The parents are concerned that he has a really deep cough that hejust can’t seem to get over. The parents are concerned that about a week ago, Kevin developed a profound cough that is deep and sounds like he’s barking. Kevin also has occasional vomiting with productive cough. Additionally, his symptoms also include a low-grade temperature. The symptoms the 6 years old has are of croup. According to Huether & McCance (2017), croup is an acute laryngotracheitis and almost always occurs in children between 6 months and 5 years of age. In the case of Kevin, I believe he has a diagnosis of spasmodic croup since spasmodic croup occurs mainly in older children (Huether & McCance, 2017). The clinical manifestations of croup are rhinorrhea, sore throat, and low-grade fever for a few days, and then develop a harsh barking cough, inspiratory stridor, and hoarse voice (Huether & McCance, 2017). Although Kevin was up to date with his vaccines, some of the causes of croup can be viral, such as RSV, rhinovirus, adenovirus, rubella virus, or atypical bacteria (Huether & McCance, 2017). The Pathophysiology of CroupCroup is a respiratory illness characterized by inspiratory stridor, cough, and hoarseness. These symptoms result from inflammation in the larynx and subglottic airway. The viruses that cause croup typically infect the nasal and pharyngeal mucosal epithelia initially and then spread locally along the respiratory epithelium to the larynx and trachea. A barking cough is the hallmark of croup among infants and young children, whereas hoarseness predominates in older
children and adults. Although croup usually is a mild and self-limited illness, significant upper