[B._Beckhoff,_et_al.]_Handbook_of_Practical_X-Ray_(b-ok.org).pdf

4136 kev although sem edx is unable to provide

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ming up at each pixel the counts in the energy range 13.4–13.6 keV. Although SEM-EDX is unable to provide information on isotopic composition of the sample, it gives excellent information on the particles’ dimensions and size distribution.
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640 D. Rammlmair et al. In a sediment sample stemming from a reprocessing plant, micro-SXRF could reveal the association of high concentration of Zr (1100 pm) and Hf (70 ppm) in a particle containing 15 ppm of U [374]. From this finding it was supposed that uranium contained in the particle was anthropogenic. Since no isotopic ratio measurements were performed no final conclusions on the origin of the particle could be drawn. 7.6 Geology, Mining, Metallurgy D. Rammlmair, M. Wilke, K. Rickers, R.A. Schwarzer, A. M¨ oller, A. Wittenberg 7.6.1 Introduction Geology, mineralogy, exploration, and mining require an interdisciplinary approach involving geological mapping, tectonics, petrography, geochemistry, sedimentology, remote sensing, geophysics, microbiology, engineering, mineral treatment, and melioration. Within this frame geochemistry is one of the basic tools used in characterizing rocks of magmatic, metamorphic, and sedimento- logical origin, as well as soils and weathering products of these. The obtained geochemical information allows us to classify the rock either in terms of an internationally approved rock name classification [395] (Le Maitre et al. and references), genetic origin, such as the classification of magmatic rocks to geo- tectonic environments [396] (Pearce and references) or parental magma series. Moreover and more importantly, genetic processes like fractionation and/or mixing and/or assimilation during transport in the earth’s interior become elucidated through the geochemical characterization of the source rock, the interim, and the final product. Even chemical changes within apparent homo- geneous successions due to cryptic layering, metamorphism, metasomatism, alteration, weathering and/or mineralization can be visualized. The characterization of soil samples is fundamental for understanding soil-forming processes and transport processes within soils and their contri- bution to the groundwater quality. Soil characterization on a regional scale is embedded and used in soil information systems. The data obtained are used for monitoring the amount and type of fertilizer to be adopted in the high-technology GPS (global positioning system)-controlled agricultural in- dustry. For these applications, high accuracy of the obtained geochemical data is crucial. Regarding exploration and mining, the rapid characterization of prospective zones due to relative enrichment or even depletion of diagnostic or pathfinder elements is fundamental for finding and developing a mine site. In the field of metallurgy, online quality control of the products is rel- evant at every point of the production process: starting at the mining site
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Methodological Developments and Applications 641 itself, blocks of rock are selected and mixed properly to obtain a homoge- neous ore concentration used in the treatment plant. Within the treatment
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