because police target people due to their racial characteristics ○Police target and stopping them driving cars for their skin colour. ➔Tanner and Wortley Toronto Study of 3,000 high school students ◆For those youth who were involved in crime 82% reported being stopped by police (no racial differences) ◆Interviewed 3000 young people who are mostly in school → highschools
●Asked about criminal behaviour and police contact ●More minor crime than youth then arent in school and in more serious crime ●Mostly guys ➔For those youth who were involved in crime 82% reported being stopped by police. ➔What about non criminality involved youth? ◆Police contacts were not involved in crime. ●49% of black youth has police contact ○3X MORE LIKELY EVEN THOUGH NOT INVOLVED IN CRIME. ●Compared to 17% of white youth ➔Carding / street checks ◆Police stop group or individual of youth who are not being accused or charged with a crime ◆Ask them for age, ID, who they hang around with ◆Technically these youth people are not legally bound to offer info if not being accused or charged ●Lot of time young people don't know this ➔Stopped in 2016 in toronto due to violation of charter rights ◆Ontario gov stopped this ◆Now police have to give recipes to people with their name and badge # and have to tell them that it is their right to withhold information ➔Between 2009 -2011 info. Collected from 1.1 million people ➔Drug dealing - Asked students Wortley / Tanner ◆45% of black drug dealers has been arrested compared to 35% of white drug dealers ➔But surveys did not ask where drugs were sold or how often (At school to friends or on the streets to strangers?) ◆Crack on the streets to homeless people or marijuana to friends ◆Impact on police contact. ◆Selling drugs and black your arrests are double them whites. Social Profiling ●Being targets for where you are / what you look like rather than on what you are doing ●Social Status → poor/sloppy looking ; “bad” ○Personal hygiene / on street with certain breeds of dogs ■Pitbulls ■More likely to be contacted by police ○Ask questions such as - ever been asked to move? Carded? ■Best predictor of street youth is level of involved in crime ■Youth ppl on street selling drugs draws attention from police - not surprising ■Also of young people who are on the street on day and evening, heard they were involved in pan handing - searched by police. ●Street youth who are involved in crime is the best predictor of police contact
○Found: But street youth who are not involved in crime are also targeted by police: panhandling; jay walking, questioned by police, searches by police (males, black and indigenous youth) ○Males: more likely than females to be contacted by police as well as black and indigenous youth regardless of no contact.