6.The_Legal_Basis_of_Planning

Obligations are imposed on local governments by state

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Obligations are imposed on local governments by state governments such as collecting taxes to support public interests; Local government actions are limited by rights guaranteed to individuals by the U.S. Constitution or state constitutions; Limits on borrowing money; Local planning activity limited by what the courts will allow.
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Local Government Authority The Constitution of the United States does not mention local governments. Local Governments are created and regulated by the States. Constitution of the State of Michigan of 1963 Constitution-VII: Local Government
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Local Ordinances should define….. Who has responsibility Emergency powers
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In Michigan 83 counties 1,242 townships (124 are charter) 271 cities 263 villages 549 school districts 54 intermediate school districts 14 planning and development regions 250 special districts and authorities
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In Michigan Cities, villages and townships exercise the primary governing authority; Have similar, but not identical service and regulatory powers; Townships generally don’t control roads (county does); Villages are not legally separated from the township- don’t have to assess property taxes or conduct elections.
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Michigan counties Exist to extend the outreach of state government and serve state interests; Public health, mental health, courts, vital records, land and property records, disaster preparedness, solid waste management, highway/roads, property tax administration, law enforcement, elections, jails, etc;
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Michigan counties Wayne County (charter county; adopted in1980); Permitted by the Charter County Act of 1966; Act permits voters to choose to have either an elected county executive or county manager; Board of Commissioners are legislators and the county executive – day to day
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Michigan counties General law: all other counties; Centralized administration under the authority of the Option Unified Form of County Government Act of 1973; With voter approval, can have a county executive (elected), or county manager appointed by the Commissioners;
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