L04 - NATS1610-fw1718 - The Organization of the Human Body.pdf

11 12 often if one system fails another system or

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12 Often, if one system fails another system (or systems) “kick in” Example of organ system “co-operation” n Abnormality in the immune (lymphatic) system may cause Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia n Autoimmune disorder - causes own body’s antibodies to destroy own red blood cells n Causing life-threatening severe anemia § due to depleted cellular oxygen (why?/how?) n Other body systems “kick in” to help save body by attempting to deliver more oxygen to cells & brain n Respiratory system increases breathing rate (effect?) n Cardiovascular system increases heart rate (effect?) n Muscular system constricts muscles in blood vessels of extremities (effect?) The study of the Organ Systems reveals that they all work together to maintain health, protect from disease, & for reproduction
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13 ORGAN SYSTEMS – Organized by General Function Maintenance of the Body n Integumentary n Digestive system n Circulatory system n Immune system (lymphatic) n Respiratory system n Urinary system Support and Movement of the Body n Skeletal system n Muscular system Coordination and Regulation of Body and Body Systems n Nervous system n Endocrine system Continuance of the Species n Reproductive system
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Body Systems SUMMARY - Contributions to Homeostasis Circulatory Carries materials from one part of the body to another Muscular Moves the bones, temperature regulation Digestive Breaks down food into smaller molecules that can be distributed to body cells; transfers water and electrolytes from external to internal environment; eliminates undigested food to external environment in feces Respiratory Gets O 2 from and eliminates CO 2 to the external environment; important in maintaining proper pH in internal environment Urinary Removes excess water, salt, acid, and other electrolytes from plasma – eliminates them in urine Skeletal Provides support & protection for soft tissues & organs; serves as storage reservoir for calcium; along with muscular system enables movement of body & its parts; bone marrow is source of all blood cells Integumentary Outer body protective barrier; helps regulate body temperature Immune (and Lymphatic) Defends against foreign microorganisms & against cancerous body cells; prepares for cell repair and/or replacement. (Lymphatic system regulates fluid volumes.) Nervous Controls & coordinates bodily activities that require rapid responses; detects & initiates reactions to changes in the external environment Endocrine Secreting endocrine glands regulate activities that require duration rather than speed; controls nutrient concentration; adjusts kidney function; controls volume & electrolyte composition in the internal environment Reproductive Not essential for homeostasis; essential for perpetuating the species Know these...
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15 Review Question (find the answers in the previous slides) n List 4 organ systems involved with body maintenance
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Anatomical Terms 16
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17 ANATOMICAL TERMS : used to permit unambiguous communication about body structure and parts Anatomical Position n Body is standing erect & facing forward n Upper limbs at sides with palms facing forward n Feet flat on floor Psst know the names of the body parts!
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