Inequality gap between the most and the least poverty

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Inequality = gap between the most and the least Poverty = defining the bottom of the distribution
MEASURING POVERTY: An individual/family = poor if (p 251): total pre-tax annual income is less than that needed to buy a minimally acceptable standard of living (“grocery cart”) “minimal acceptance” = 3X’s the cost of minimally adequate diet 2012 Income guidelines:
Poverty rates are on the rise: In 2009, 43.6 million people were in poverty, up from 39.8 million in POVERTY TRENDS 2008 2009: 14.3% of US population living in poverty; in 2010: 15.1%
WHO ARE THE POOR? (p 240) Less Likely Whites Men
WHO ARE THE POOR? ( p 253) More likely People of color Women Children Elderly
Source: US Census Bureau
WHO ARE THE POOR? More likely People of color Women Children Elderly Rural populations
What the…..is Intersectionality? a combination of factors that influence the likelihood you will be location in a particular social class
Rural versus Urban America (2008) (intersectionality of location/race & ethnicity/gender/age) Rural Urban Poverty (percent) 14.2 11.6 Poverty (population) 8 million approx. 30 million approx. Northeast (percent) 10.7 10.9 Midwest (percent) 10.7 10.1 South (percent) 17.5 12.7 West 14.3 12.1 Non-Hispanic whites 11.0 7.2 Non-Hispanic blacks 33.2 22.7 Hispanics 26.7 21.4 Children < 18yrs 19.8 16.0 Persons 18-65 yrs 12.4 10.2 Elderly 11.9 10.0
Rural versus Urban America (2008) (intersectionality of location/race & ethnicity/gender/age) Rural Urban Poverty (percent) 14.2 11.6 Poverty (population) 8 million approx. 30 million approx. There may be many more people who are living below the poverty line in cities, the rate/percentage/proportion of people living in rural areas who are poor is higher when compared to people living in urban areas Urban = more people Rural = higher percent
RURAL POVERTY Poverty is less visible in rural areas –spread out/”back roads” More likely to have jobs – working poor –but what kind? low pay blue and white collar, without benefits, and susceptible to seasonal layoffs and shutdowns
POVERTY AND AGE (pp 251-252) Children are particularly vulnerable 1/3 of all people in poverty are children 46% of children under age 6 are in low income families 21.5% of all households with children are below the poverty line
Why does poverty exist? Individual (micro) level theories: People are lazy (wacky uncle theory) Likely the other way –poverty/unemployment poverty/unemployment underemployment –reduces motivation and reduces motivation and creates a “culture of poverty” Be careful of the ecological fallacy!
Why does poverty exist? Micro level theories: Lack of education, low educational aspirations, and little investment and little investment in in self development self development -- family important here (human resources) Culture Culture of of Poverty Poverty –where did you grow up where did you grow up how did the community/society socialize the “locals” into beliefs, values and norms about achievement, or not to bother?
Why does poverty exist?

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