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Inequality = gap between the most and the leastPoverty = defining the bottomof the distribution
MEASURING POVERTY: An individual/family = poor if (p 251):•total pre-tax annual incomeis less than that needed to buy a minimally acceptable standard of living (“grocery cart”)•“minimal acceptance” = 3X’s the cost of minimally adequate diet•2012 Income guidelines:
•Poverty rates are on the rise: •In 2009, 43.6 million people were in poverty, up from 39.8 million in POVERTY TRENDS2008•2009: 14.3% of US population living in poverty; in 2010: 15.1%
WHO ARE THE POOR? (p 240)Less LikelyWhitesMen
WHO ARE THE POOR? ( p 253)More likelyPeople of colorWomenChildrenElderly
Source: US Census Bureau
WHO ARE THE POOR?More likelyPeople of colorWomenChildrenElderlyRural populations
What the…..is Intersectionality?a combination of factors that influence the likelihood you will be location in a particular social class
Rural versus Urban America (2008)(intersectionality of location/race & ethnicity/gender/age)RuralUrbanPoverty (percent)14.211.6Poverty (population)8 million approx.30 million approx.Northeast (percent)10.710.9Midwest (percent)10.710.1South (percent)17.512.7West14.312.1Non-Hispanic whites11.07.2Non-Hispanic blacks33.222.7Hispanics26.721.4Children <18yrs19.816.0Persons 18-65 yrs12.410.2Elderly11.910.0
Rural versus Urban America (2008)(intersectionality of location/race & ethnicity/gender/age)RuralUrbanPoverty (percent)14.211.6Poverty (population)8 million approx.30 million approx.There may be many more people who are living below the poverty line in cities, the rate/percentage/proportion of people living in rural areas who are poor is higher when compared to people living in urban areasUrban = more peopleRural = higher percent
RURAL POVERTY•Poverty is less visible in ruralareas –spread out/”back roads”•More likely to have jobs –working poor –but what kind?low pay blue and white collar,without benefits, and susceptible to seasonal layoffs and shutdowns
POVERTY AND AGE (pp 251-252)•Children are particularly vulnerable–1/3 of all people in poverty are children–46% of children under age 6 are in lowincome families–21.5% of all households with children are below the poverty line
Why does poverty exist?•Individual (micro) level theories:–People are lazy (wacky uncle theory)Likely the other way –poverty/unemploymentpoverty/unemploymentunderemployment –reduces motivation andreduces motivation andcreates a “culture of poverty”Be careful of the ecological fallacy!
Why does poverty exist?•Micro level theories:–Lack of education, low educational aspirations, and little investment and little investment in in self development self development --family important here(human resources)–Culture Culture of of Poverty Poverty –where did you grow up where did you grow up –how did the community/society socialize the “locals” into beliefs, values and norms about achievement, or not to bother?