The counter current multiplier o This recaptures NaCl and returns it to renal

The counter current multiplier o this recaptures nacl

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The counter current multiplier o This recaptures NaCl and returns it to renal medulla What are the main organs associated with the urinary system. Can you identify the flow of blood from the heart through the kidney, and back to the heart? Six Organs: o 2 kidneys (multiple functions) o 2 Ureters (transport urine) o 1 bladder (store urine) o 1 Urethra (transports / excretes urine) Can you trace the flow of fluid from the glomerulus to the urethra? If given a place in the nephron, could you tell me if the fluid is glomerular filtrate, tubular fluid, or urine? Fluid Flow Summary: 1. Glomerular filtrate 2. PCT 3. Nephron loop 4. DCT 5. Collecting duct 6. Papillary duct 7. Minor calyx 8. Major calyx 9. Renal pelvis 10. Ureter 11. Urinary bladder 12. Urethra What is the main function of the kidney, what are other functions of the kidney? Kidney Functions: Urinary system rids the body of metabolic waste products Kidneys are the primary functional organ Filter blood plasma, separate waste from useful chemicals 1 Return useful chemicals to blood 2 Eliminate waste Kidneys also have a multitude of other functions : 1 1. Regulate blood volume & pressure by eliminating or conserving water 2 2. Regulate body fluid osmolarity by controlling water:solute elimination ratio 3 3. Secrete renin , an enzyme that activates hormonal control of blood pressure 4 4. Secrete erythropoietin , that stimulates red blood cell synthesis 5 5. Collaborate with lungs to regulate Ph of body fluids 6 6. Add hydroxyl group to calcitriol calcium homeostasis
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7 7. Initiate gluconeogenesis from amino acids during extreme starvation What gives the medullary (renal) pyramids their characteristic “stringy” appearance? The collecting ducts, which run down the medullary pyramids (including nephrons) What are the minor calyx and the major calyx? Renal calyxes are parts of the kidney that collect urine before it passes further into the urinary tract The calyxes are part of the renal pelvis What is the structural and functional unit of the kidney? The Nephron Do you know the nephron structure?: glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle (ascending and descending), distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct) The Nephron: Each kidney ~ 1.2 million nephrons Each is an identical functional unit Comprised of 2 parts: o Renal corpuscle - filters blood plasma Golumerular Capsule Parietal layer (simple squamous) Capsule space (filtrate collecting) Visceral layer (podocytes) o Renal tubule - coiled tube that converts filtrate into urine (simple cuboidal) 4 Regions: Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) o Long tubule o Simple cuboidal epithelium with prominent microvilli (brush border) o Lots of absorption Nephron loop (Loop of Henle) o Simple cuboidal (thick segments) o Lots of mitochondria o Involved in active transport of salts o Simple squamous (thin segments) o Permeable to water Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
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