The production is assumed to have roughly the same

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The production is assumed to have roughly the same environmental impact for all markets and is not varied. 2.4.1 Amounts of Garments Consumed Per Capita The amount of garments consumed per capita, important for the life length of the garment, varies between countries. Table 5 shows the yearly national clothing consumption for Sweden (Statistics Sweden 2014 ), the USA and China (Wazir Advisors 2015 ). For a translation into kg of garment consumed, it must be known how many kg of garments that one US dollar approximates in the different countries, and such statistics have not been found. Instead, a rough estimation of the generality was made, based on the Swedish statistics where both weight of garments (in kg) and price of garments (in SEK) are included, and 700 US dollars a year roughly cor- responds to 10 kg a year or purchase of 50 new garments per year (Statistics Sweden 2014 ). The purchase statistics for garments do not include second-hand purchase or home textiles such as towels and bedlinen. Table 5 Clothing consumption in Sweden, China and the USA in 2013 Total consumption (billion US dollar/year) Consumption per capita (US dollar/year) Sweden 6.7 704 USA 230 730 China 165 121 16 S. Roos et al.
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2.4.2 The Electricity Mix Used for Washing and Drying Garments in the Use Phase Further, it is assumed that laundry uses national average electricity, and thus, the climate impact per kWh is 100, 530 and 970 g CO 2 -eq. for Sweden, USA and China, respectively (Brander et al. 2011 ). 2.4.3 The Washing Habits of the Consumers During the preparation work for the European Ecodesign Directive (2009/125/EC) (European Commission 2009 ), several preparatory studies were performed with the aim of comparing the climate change potential of different product groups, i.e. the aim was to achieve comparability between product groups. Washing machines (Stamminger 2005 ) and laundry dryers (Lef è vre 2009 ) were two of the product groups compared under the Ecodesign Directive development. The most commonly used washing temperature in the ten countries included in the study was 40 °C, and the average load was 3.2 3.3 kg laundry/cycle. The average energy consumption increase per degree Celsius increase was 0.03 kWh/°C. Table 6 below reports the comparative energy consumption of washing machines and tumble dryers in the average scenarios for European countries. In Table 6 is shown that the average energy consumption from tumble drying is 3 4 times higher than the energy consumption of washing at 40 °C. It is also clear that refraining from tumble drying saves more energy than lowering the washing temperature, though this has some impact. In the study by Roos et al. ( 2015b ), speci fi c Swedish data for consumer laundry were retrieved from the studies of Gwozdz et al. ( 2013 ) and Faberi ( 2007 ), showing that 40 °C was the most common washing temperature and tumble drying was performed after roughly 20 % of the washing cycles. The washing temperature was set to 40 °C for all countries, while the frequency of tumble drying was Table 6 Energy consumption of washing machines and tumble dryers Energy consumption per kg laundry (kWh) Wash 30 °C 0.15
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  • Fall '19
  • Sustainable fashion, Sandra Roos

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