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biologyfinalexamreview

Ex beef fat and butter unsaturated fats liquid at

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Ex. beef fat and butter - Unsaturated fats = liquid at room temperature o Fewer hydrogen atoms o Don’t line up or stack together well o Tend to come from plants Ex. Corn, vegetable, and olive oil o Healthier than saturated fats o Look for “nonhydrogenated” - Monounsaturated = one C missing a H - Polyunsaturated = 2 or more C missing a H o Mono- and polyunsaturated fats: o Lower bad cholesterol o Reduce heart disease o Lower blood pressure - Trans fats = unsaturated fats artificially changed into saturated fats o Store better/longer o Animal fats more costly than plant oils e.g. partially hydrogenated vegetable oil o margarine, bakery products, french fries - HDL vs. LDL (lifestyle effects) - Two families of lipoproteins: o HDL (high density lipoproteins) Carry cholesterol to liver  processed and removed by the body
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Good! o LDL (low density lipoproteins) Keep cholesterol inside bloodstream  deposited on artery walls Increases the chance of heart attack and stroke- bad! Amino acids à peptides à polypeptides/proteins - Proteins (polymers) = chains of amino acids (monomers) o All amino acids contain amino and carboxyl groups o All have a variable “R” group o Some R groups are hydrophobic o Some are hydrophilic o This alters the function of a protein o Amino acids are joined to form chains by dehydration synthesis An amino group reacts with a carboxyl group, and water is lost o Amino acid chains = “peptides” o The covalent bond between amino acids is sometimes called a “peptide bond” o Long chains of amino acids = polypeptides, or just proteins Chapter 4: Prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes - Prokaryotic cells (“before the nucleus”) o Form bodies of bacteria (simplest forms of life) - Eukaryotic cells (“true nucleus”) o Form bodies of animals, plants, fungi, etc. o Bigger & more complex than prokaryotes Cell structures & functions (and whether in plants, animals, or both): - plasma membrane- Isolates the cell contents from the environment: regulates movement of materials into and out of the cell; allows communication with other cells. -cell wall - Cell walls = polysaccharides coating the plasma membrane - Protects & supports cells - Found in plants, fungi - NOT in animals - cytoplasm = all fluid & structures inside the plasma membrane (but outside of nucleus -nucleus - = control center of a eukaryotic cell - The nucleus contains chromatin/chromosomes, which are made of DNA and proteins - Hereditary blueprint/info - ribosome- Provides the sites for protein synthesis - mitochondria - The “powerhouse of the cell” Extracts energy from food, supplies energy to body Found in plants and animals -Golgi apparatus
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- Sorts & alters (folds) proteins - Synthesizes some polysaccharides - Packages molecules & sends them to other parts of the cell or out for export - Kind of like a post office, making sure each package goes to the right place -chloroplasts- Found only in plants Site of photosynthesis Captures energy from sunlight & stores it as sugar -endoplasmic reticulum (smooth, rough) - Smooth ER - Detoxifies drugs
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