actual weights were not uniform throughout the area. The weights and measures later used in Kautilya 's Arthashastra (4th century BCE) are the same as those used in Lothal .  Harappans evolved some new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper, bronze , lead, and tin . The engineering skill of the Harappans was remarkable, especially in building docks. In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh , Pakistan, discovered that the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto- dentistry . Later, in April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo (i.e., in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh. Eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults were discovered in a Neolithic graveyard in Mehrgarh that dates from 7,500–9,000 years ago. According to the authors, their discoveries point to a tradition of proto-dentistry in the early farming cultures of that region.  A touchstone bearing gold streaks was found in Banawali , which was probably used for testing the purity of gold (such a technique is still used in some parts of India).  Arts and crafts [ edit ]
The " dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro " Chanhudaro. Fragment of Large Deep Vessel, circa 2500 B.C.E. Red pottery with red and black slip-painted decoration, 4 15 / 16 × 6 ⅛ in. (12.5 × 15.5 cm). Brooklyn Museum Various sculptures, seals,bronze vessels pottery , gold jewellery, and anatomically detailed figurines in terracotta , bronze, and steatite have been found at excavation sites. A number of gold, terracotta and stone figurines of girls in dancing poses reveal the presence of some dance form. These terracotta figurines included cows, bears, monkeys, and dogs. The animal depicted on a majority of seals at sites of the mature period has not been clearly identified. Part bull, part zebra, with a majestic horn, it has been a source of speculation. As yet, there is insufficient evidence to substantiate claims that the image had religious or cultic significance, but the prevalence of the image raises the question of whether or not the animals in images of the IVC are religious symbols.  Sir John Marshall reacted with surprise when he saw the famous Indus bronze statuette of a slender-limbed dancing girl in Mohenjo-Daro: When I first saw them I found it difficult to believe that they were prehistoric; they seemed to completely upset all established ideas about early art, and culture. Modeling such as this was unknown in the ancient world up to the Hellenistic age of Greece, and I thought, therefore, that some mistake must surely have been made; that these figures had found their way into levels some 3000 years older than those to which they properly belonged .... Now, in these statuettes, it is just this anatomical truth which is so startling; that makes us wonder whether, in this all-important matter, Greek artistry could possibly have been anticipated by the sculptors of a far-off age on the banks of the Indus.
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- Summer '19
- Indus Valley Civilization, Indus River valley, Indus valley civilisation