Move scapula towards the spine lift up the arms

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-move scapula towards the spine lift up the arms higher than horizontal level -range of motion test ,strength test hypoglossal n. ; derived from basal fplate of embryonic -controls tongue movement required for speech, food manipulation and swallowing -provide motor control of extrinsic muscles oftongue :-genioglossus -hypoglossus -styloglossus and intrinsic muscles of tongue as well *damage may be on different levels : -supranuclear -nuclear -unilateral -bilateral 1 central palsy : -hypertonia -hypereflexia -pathological lesion and side of damage are opposite 2 peripheral palsy : -atrophia -atonia -areflexia -fibrilation and fasciculation in nuclei damage -pathological lesion and side of damage are the same clinical symptoms : -deviation of tongue -cant put out tongue examination : ask patient to stick their tongue out -in loss of innervation to one side : tongue curves towards affected side -in lesion of lower motor neuron : tongue deviates to damaged side with fasciculations or atrophy in lesion of upper motor neuron : tongue deviates from damaged side without fasciculation atrophy * unilateral atrophy may be seen as reduced in size of tongue wrinkling
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35 describe the clinical presentation of bulbar and pseudobulbar syndrome and how to distinguish them bulbar abd pseudobulbar bulbar : symptoms group of motor disorder that appears with impairment of 9 10 12 CN -can be unilateral/bilateral with developed peripheral muscles paresis or paralysis innervated by 9 10 12 -hypo/areflexia -disturbed swallowing tongue atrophy - disturbed voice -disturbed speech articulation -choking while eating and swallowing -vegetative disturbances -pseudobulbar : central paresis of muscles innervated by bulbar nerves -bilaeral damage of cortconuclear tract going from motor cortical centers to bulbar group nerves nuclei -dysphagia -mandibular reflex increased -reflexes of oral automatism -memory attention intelligence deteroriation -tongue deviating to opposite side of lesion -hypereflexia -uncontrolled laughing and crying 36 describe the alternating syndromes that you know and their clinical presentation bulbar; jacksons syndrome pair 12 is affected and hemiparesis of opposite sides -avellis syndrome : pair 9 8 11 affected and hemiparesis on opp side -schmidt syndrome : pairs 9 10 11 affected and hemiparesis on opposite side -wallenberg zakcharchenko syndrome : pairs 5 9 10 affected and ympathetic part of vegetative nervous syystem and hemiparesis on opp sides pontine : -mullard gubler syndrome : pair 7 affected and hemiparesis of opposite side - faville syndrome : pairs 6 7 affected and hemiparesis of opposite side peduncular : weber syndrome : pair 3 affected and hemiparesis of opposite side -benedikt syndrom : pairs 3 and cerebellum pathway and nucleus rubro affected and hemiparesis of opposite side 37 describe in details the anatomy of ANS autonomic nervous system regulates visceral 3 vegetative body function divisions 1 parasympathetic division 2 sympathetic division
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-sympathetic : -preganglionic neurons in lateral grey horns of 12 thoracic and first 2 lumbar segments
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  • Winter '18
  • Jane doe

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