(the electrochemical discharge of a neuron) C. Synaptic vesicles (sacs in the axon terminals that store the neurotransmitter) 1. Neural firing drives them to the synapse where they release their neurotransmitters D. The neurotransmitter binds to the receptor site on the target (post-synaptic) cell E. Ion channels open – causes change in electrical potential of postsynaptic neuron IV. The central nervous system (CNS) A. Spinal cord – connects brain to PNS; simple reflexes B. Brain 1. Hindbrain a. Brainstem – handles functions critical to physical survival i. pons – relay station for motor messages b/t cerebellum & motor cortex ii. reticular formation – arousal system involved in alertness & attention iii. medulla – heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, swallowing, coughing b. Cerebellum – smooth and skilled movement; muscle tone & posture 2. Midbrain a. Substantia nigra – unconscious motor actions 3. Forebrain a. Thalamus – relay station b/t cerebral cortex and sensory information (for all senses except smell) b. Hypothalamus – hunger, thirst, body temperature, physiological aspects of emotion c. Limbic system i. amygdala – emotion (esp. response to unpleasant or punishing stimuli) ii. hippocampus – memory, navigational ability d. Cerebrum – largest structure in human brain i. Cerebral cortex o Cerebral hemispheres – lateralization of brain function o Left hemisphere – controls right side of body Language (for 95% of right-handers and 62% of left- handers) Broca’s area (damage results in Broca’s aphasia – difficulty producing speech; understanding fine) Wernicke’s area (damage results in Wernicke’s aphasia – difficulty understanding speech; production fine but doesn’t make sense) Math & logic Details o Right hemisphere – controls left side of body Visual-spatial relations Music Metaphors
Emotional qualities of speech Overall patterns o Lobes of the brain o Temporal lobes – auditory (hearing) cortex & Wernicke’s area o Occipital lobes – visual (seeing) cortex o Parietal lobes – somatosensory (sensing) cortex, spatial orientation o Frontal lobes – Broca’s area, thinking, planning, reasoning, impulse control, motivation, motor (moving) cortex ii. Corpus callosum – thick band of nerve fibers connecting right and left hemispheres V. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) A. Somatic – voluntary muscle activation (carries information from the senses to the CNS for processing and sends movement instructions back to the muscles) B. Autonomic – transmits messages between the CNS and the body’s organs and glands 1. Sympathetic – prepares body for stress or action;“fight or flight” reactions 2. Parasympathetic – returns body systems to normal (“rest and digest”)
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- Fall '13
- c. symptoms, B. cause, a. Chromosomes