Provide choice involve ppl in decisions to be made

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Provide Choice involve ppl in decisions to be made; give freedom to make decisions about the way to carry out tasks - more enthusiasm in the job - extrinsic rewards/punishments actually remove choice (b/c it focuses on rewards, not tasks/goals) - not having choice → burnout, dissatisfc’n, absenteeism, stress, heart disease Providing proper environment may be more important than reward structure.
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Benefits Drawbacks P ART 2: S TRIVING FOR P ERFORMANCE JOB REDESIGN job design = how tasks are assigned to form a job Job Rotation (cross-training) = periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another - when an activity is no longer challenging, employee is roated to another job @ same level that has similar skill requirements e.g. McDonald’s: making, packaging, serving hamburgers - employees organized in teams of 10; each learns jobs of others (→ wider range of skills → more flexibility in scheduling work, adapting to changes, filling vacancies) - ↓ absenteeism (members can fill in for each other), boredom & frequency of repetitive stress injuries - ↑motivation (by diversifying activities) - ↑training costs, creates disruptions - ↓productivity (worker moves into new position just when he becomes efficient at last job) - manager spends more time answering questions & monitoring work of recently rotated employee - can demotivate intelligent, ambitious employees who seek specific responsibilities in their specialty job enlargement = horizontal expansion of jobs - inc. # & variety of tasks → jobs w/ more diversity job enrichment = vertical expansion of jobs - ↑degree to which workers control planning, execution, evaluation of their work - organizes tasks so that employee does a complete activity - expands employee’s freedom & independence, ↑responsibility, and provides feedback job characteristic model (JCM) = model that identifies 5 core job dimensions & their relationships to personal & work outcomes - builds on Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory; focuses on content of jobs (NOT context) Core Job Dimensions (rated High/Low) Skill variety: degree to which job requires a variety of diff. activities so employee can use diff. skills & talents Task identity: …job requires completion of a whole & identifiable piece of work Task significance: …job has a substantial impact on the lives / work of other ppl Autonomy: …job provides substantial freedom, independence, discretion to individual in scheduling work & determine the procedures to be used in carrying it out Feedback: …carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual obtaining direct & clear info about effectiveness of his performance
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P ART 2: S TRIVING FOR P ERFORMANCE Critical Psychological States JCM links 5 core job dimensions to 3 psychological states: Extended meaningfulness if an employee’s task is meaningful, employee will view the job as important, valuable, worthwhile skill variety task identity task significance Experienced responsibility for outcomes employees feel a sense of personal responsibility for results when their jobs give them greater autonomy autonomy Knowledge of actual results feedback helps employees know whether they are performing effectively feedback -
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