R8. International Negotiating Styles - Foster - ch 8 pp 264 - 293.pdf

Are made slowly a4 earefully after much consideration

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are made slowly ,a~4~ earefully, after much consideration ofall possible details, often by m~#i¡ people. Low avoidance of uncertainty means there is a Iot more shoQt#$ ing from che hip, a lot more "gut-level" decision making. with few~t~~ people involved and less information required; low risk-avoidan(@ .,moves fast, takes risks, and bounees baek. High-risk-avoidance culture~~ need lots offormal bureaucratic rules in order to feel comfortable ó tM.}jj rely on rituals, standards, and formulas; they trust only those dos~~~ arid most reliable (often family and mner circIes). There is a sense tbª~1 planning is very essential, for fate is unpredictable and the world is for:~~ . ,j~ Internafional Negotlating Styles 269 ever a dangerous place. For people in these cultures, the rules are ,meant to be followed; there is often an accompanyingIy Iow tolerance for differences and ambiguity and a tendency to reveal thoughts, feel- , ip.gs, and emotions only carefully, if at all. , ' In contrast, people in low-uncertainty-avoidance cultures can dislike hierarchy-they find it inefficient and destructive. They rely on princi- pIes that guarantee safe actions and view planning Iess as a way to avoid .:' ,~evitable catastrophe than as a way to he able to control the future. For ,,,,people in these cultures, things move fasto There is more tolerance. '~ven acceptance, of ambiguity and differences; and thoughts and feel- ',: ings, in the form of information and emotion, are usually more freely : ,expressed. , In relation to other countries in che studies, the United States has a ';'fairly low,need for certainty, hut not the lowest. Among the countries :Wich even lower needs for certainty (more risk-taking, more entrepre- , neurial, more comfortable wich uncertainty) are 1 amaica, certain N ordic ::::n~tions, Hong Kong, and Singapore (which has the lowest need of aH). Ji is important to remember that low risk-avoidance does not necessarily ~'~:m~n high risk-taking. Many of these cultures have to learo to survive :\in the face of great uncertainty. For them, theiefore. uncertainty is riot ·p.ecessarily something to put great energy into avoiding. since it is daily "aild inevitable. The dynamic Pacific Rim dragons, like Hong Kong and s'$ingapore. have risk-taking and entrepreneurship as part of their Chi- ~p:ese cultural heritages. in addition to a powerful drive to keep che ever- ::threatening disasters of the unpredictable future at bay. o:: For Americans, the experience of working in their companies' over- ;:~eas offices - particularly in more conservative risk-avoidance cultures- tean be extremely stressful. They often find chemselves caught in the 1¡'!I'tiddle between how they know chings realIy are in their new hom~ and ;;pów headquarters wants them to be: The American in the middle ir~nows, for example. that things will simply take more time in the coun- ~~ry of assignment. while it may be difficult to explain exacdy why to the ~:!ffóme office. The home office may understand none of this and chere- ~~dre will not understand why, ever sínce Smith was sent abroad. his {~"ifarterly results. have fallen. Despite Smith's insistence
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