Fruits per stem which correlates to seeds per plant

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between 25-80 fruits per stem, which correlates to over 20 000 seeds per plant per year. It is a rapid coloniser of coastal dunes. Sea spurge has been listed as a threat in the national recovery plan for the Orange–bellied parrot (OBPRT 2006). 29. Ivy ( Hedera helix ) Ivy is a garden escapee and can be found around most residential areas. It is a slow growing vine, however once established it can potentially eliminate most King Island Biodiversity Management Plan 110
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native vegetation. Plants are found in seasonally moist, sunny or shaded areas. Ivy is recognised as a threat to a number of vegetation communities on the Island including Melaleuca ericifolia swamp forest and Eucalyptus globulus King Island forest. 30. Holly ( Ilex aquifolium ) Small infestations can be found in remnant vegetation along Grassy Road. Dense thickets commonly shade out competing native vegetation, preventing regeneration. Plants reproduce by seed and re-shoot vigorously when top growth is damaged or cut down. 31. Honeysuckle ( Lonicera japonica ) Small patches are found on roadsides around Pegarah, and the species is also known from Camp Creek in Currie. Honeysuckle is a garden escapee, favouring shady moist areas. 32. Tree lupin ( Lupinus arboreus ) A localised population is known from the scheelite mine in Grassy and Camp Creek in Currie. Tree lupin is a bushy shrub with sweet smelling yellow flowers. It is a dune stabiliser, potentially modifying coastal environments. Reproduction is by seeds that are explosively dispersed from pods (Pickart 2008). 33. Asparagus fern ( Asparagus scandens ) Extensive infestations are located at Grassy Creek, Pegarah, Lymwood and Naracoopa and Camp Creek in Currie. Asparagus fern is a perennial twining vine. It is an aggressive plant, producing underground tubers that form dense impenetrable mats. Seeds are widely dispersed by birds. It competes with native plants for nutrients, light and space (DLWBC 2006). 34. Banana passionfruit ( Passiflora tarminiana ) Localised populations can be found around Naracoopa and Grassy. Banana passionfruit is a highly invasive, fast growing species in damp or seasonally moist areas. Once in the canopy vines have the propensity to spread laterally through the foliage. Trailing stems from dense, layered mats smothering other ground flora (Muyt 2001). 35. Cape wattle ( Paraserianthes lophantha subsp. lophantha ) Small localised populations occur in and around Grassy. Cape wattle is an aggressive species capable of dominating invaded habitats. Dense stands will shade out understorey vegetation, preventing regeneration. It commonly establishes along disturbed bushland margins before invading adjacent undisturbed areas. Mature plants produce thousands of seeds annually that can remain dormant for up to ten years (Muyt 2001). 36. Blue butterflybush ( Psoralea pinnata ) Blue butterflybush is most likely a garden escapee and can be found in patches around Grassy, Naracoopa and Pegarah. Plants commonly establish along disturbed bushland before invading adjacent undisturbed areas. They reach sexual maturity within three years and can live for ten to fifteen years. Mature
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