undervalue either direct in their persons or by reflection in their kindred, their friends, their nation, profession or name 4. T. Hobbes and war of “all against all” The "natural condition of mankind" is what would exist if there were no government, no civilization, no laws, and no common power to restrain human nature. The state of nature is a "war of all against all," in which human beings constantly seek to destroy each other in an incessant pursuit for power. Life in the state of nature is "nasty, brutish and short." 5. Can moral principles be applied, according to Morgenthau, to the actions of states andwhy?
6. Know and explain the “six principles”. 1. Political Realism believes that politics, like society in general, is governed by objective laws that have their root in human nature. In order to improve society it is first necessary to understand the laws by which society lives (P. 49) a. in order to improve society it is first necessary to understand the laws by which society lives. 2. The main signpost that helps political realism to find its way through the landscape of international politics is the interest defined in terms of power. a. This concept provides the link between reason trying to understand international politics and the facts to be understood. 3. Realism assumes that its key concept of interest defined as power is an objective category which is universally valid, but it does not endow the concept with a meaning that is fixed once and for all. 4. Political realism is aware of the moral significance of political action. It is also aware of ineluctable tension between the moral command and the requirements of successful political action. a. An individual can say Let justice be done, even if the world perish. But the state cannot do that. Both people must judge political action by universal moral principles. 5. Political realism refuses to identify the moral aspirations of a particular nation with the moral laws that govern the universe. 6. The difference, then, between political realism and other schools of thought is real, and it is profound…. Intellectually the political realist maintains the autonomy of the political where, as the economist lawyer, the moralist maintain theirs. PGs 49-53 (Moheb) 7. E.H. Carr views of economic might and political power(alex c) Pg48 The realist critique of the harmony of interests -the doctrine of the harmony of interests thus serves as an ingenious moral device invoked in perfect sincerity, by privileged groups in order to justify and maintain their dominant position -the overwhelming power of the privileged group and is an excellent illustration of the Machiavellian maxim that morality is the product of power.