o Although they have same calories, same weights, they are not handled the same way because the components of the food are not digested. o Fiber content determines the energy to digest a food. Brown bread has more fiber, so it requires more energy to digested. Lesson 3
Metabolisable energy : we use some of the calories that are available in the food to digest and break down some of the components of food. o Let’s say there is a lasagna. Lasagna has 400 calories. That does not mean that we gain 400 calories eating lasagna as there is fats, proteins and carbonhydrates inside of lasagna. We’re going to take some of the calories of lasagna, but also the rest will stay. Cooked foods are more easily metabolized as they are pre-digested during cooking process. o Carrot, let’s say cooked or not, will give the same amount of calories in a calorimeter but our body does not work that way. We have to expand more calories to break down and digest raw carrots than cooked carrots. o Same thing goes for meat, a well-done steak provides more available calories than raw meat. In tables or books, what we see is though is what is calculated in a calorimeter. o Orange juice 108 cal o Fudge 155 cal o 1 gram of dynamite same as fudge. Around 155 cal. Cooking, fiber content, and texture creates difference in terms of the « real calories » Metabolism : energy consumption by biochemical processes. o Everything that goes on in our body takes some effort. Heart beat Lungs working, brain working. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy that we would expand over a 24 hour period by doing nothing. We equate the calorie content ot a certain amount of food, but it is not corret to say we are burning calories. o We are burning food compenents with the release of calories. If we walk in a speed which makes 5-6 km in an hour, we lose 4 calories every minute. o How do we know this? Ex : we can put people in a room that is thermally insulated from the outside, have them do some kind of activity, and measure the temperature change in the room. The temperature change comes from the enrgy that is being expande for doing that activity. There are simpler ways though. Measure the oxygen that is inhaled and carbon dioxide that is exhaled. While dancing, we lose 5.5 calories per minute. While bicycling at 21 km/h we lose 8 calories per minute. While running at 16km/h we lose 16/17 calories per minute. Basal metabolic rate varies
o Depending on body size o Depending on male or female Lesson 4 Humans are biochemically individual, even though they have the same amount of energy. – basal metabolic rate difference. We know that people who have metabolic syndrome do better on a low carbonhydrate diet than others.
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