Iss 225 power authority exchange personality bell

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ISS 225 Power, Authority, Exchange Personality bell. Many of our behaviors today are shaped by the pairing of stimuli (smell, sight, and hearing). 2. Operant Conditioning The term "Operant" refers to how an organism operates on the environment, and hence, operant conditioning comes from how we respond to what is presented to us in our environment. It can be thought of as learning due to the natural consequences of our actions. The classic study of Operant Conditioning is the Skinner Box, developed by B.F. Skinner. This involved a cat who was placed in a box with only one way out; a specific area of the box had to be pressed in order for the door to open. The cat initially tries to get out of the box because freedom is reinforcing. In its attempt to escape, the area of the box is triggered and the door opens. The cat is now free. Once placed in the box again, the cat will naturally try to remember what it did to escape the previous time and will once again find the area to press. The more the cat is placed back in the box, the quicker it will press that area for its freedom. It has learned, through natural consequences, how to gain the reinforcing freedom. Here is a video of the Skinner Box in action using a pigeon. 3. Reinforcement The term reinforce means to strengthen, and is used in psychology to refer to anything stimulus which strengthens or increases the probability of a specific response. For example, if you want your dog to sit on command, you may give him a treat every time he sits for you. The dog will eventually come to understand that sitting when told to will result in a treat. This treat is reinforcing because he likes it and will result in him sitting when instructed to do so. The four types of reinforcement include: Positive Reinforcement . This involves adding something in order to increase a response. Negative Reinforcement . Think of negative reinforcement as taking something negative away in order to increase a response. Punishment . Punishment refers to adding something aversive in order to decrease a behavior. The most common example of this is disciplining. Extinction . When you remove something in order to decrease a behavior, this is called extinction. You are taking something away so that a response is decreased. 7
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ISS 225 Power, Authority, Exchange Personality D. Cognitive Psychology The cognitive approach focuses on how people learn about themselves and their environment. It focuses on the realms of human perception, thought, and memory. Differences in personality are the result of differences in how individuals mentally represent information. Cognitive psychology is one of the more recent additions to psychological research, having only developed as a separate area within the discipline since the late 1950s and early 1960s.
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