Within this technical package some approaches do not yet have research evidence

Within this technical package some approaches do not

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Within this technical package, some approaches do not yet have research evidence demonstrating impact on rates of suicide but instead are supported by evidence indicating impacts on risk or protective factors for suicide (e.g., help- seeking, stigma reduction, depression, connectedness). In terms of the strength of the evidence, programs that have demonstrated effects on suicidal behavior (e.g., reductions in deaths, attempts) provide a higher-level of evidence, but the evidence base is not that strong in all areas. For instance, there has been less evaluation of community engagement and family programs on suicidal behavior. Thus, approaches in this package that have effects on risk or protective factors reflect the developing nature of the evidence base and the use of the best available evidence at a given time.  It is also important to note that there is often significant heterogeneity among the programs, policies, or practices that fall within one approach or strategy in terms of the nature and quality of the available evidence. Not all programs, poli- cies, or practices that utilize the same approach are equally effective, and even those that are effective may not work across all populations. Tailoring programs and conducting more evaluations may be necessary to address different population groups. The evidence-based programs, practices, or policies included in the package are not intended to be a comprehensive list for each approach, but rather to serve as examples that have been shown to impact suicide or have beneficial effects on risk or protective factors for suicide. Contextual and Cross-Cutting Themes One important feature of the package is the complementary and potentially synergistic impact of the strategies and approaches. The strategies and approaches included in this technical package represent different levels of the social ecology, with efforts intended to impact community and societal levels, as well individual and relationship levels. The strategies and approaches are intended to work in combination and reinforce each other to prevent suicide (see box on page 12). The strategies are arranged in order such that those strategies hypothesized to have the greatest potential for broad public health impact on suicide are included first, followed by those that might impact subsets of the population (e.g., persons who have already made a suicide attempt). Preventing Suicide: A Technical Package of Policy, Programs, and Practices 11 Like most public health problems, suicide is preventable.
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12 Preventing Suicide: A Technical Package of Policy, Programs, and Practices Preventing Suicide Strategy Approach Strengthen economic supports Strengthen household financial security Housing stabilization policies Strengthen access and delivery of suicide care Coverage of mental health conditions in health insurance policies Reduce provider shortages in underserved areas Safer suicide care through systems change Create protective environments
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