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essential elements of criminal intent, and caused hard that was equivalent to or exceeded that caused by conventional crimes (pg. 58-59)←Other Research Methods•Experimental and Evaluation Research oExperimental Method: practitioners of the hard sciences in discipline like biology, chemistry, and physics, as well as medical research use this methodIn an experiment, researcher exposes a group of experimental subjects to particular stimulus and then monitors or observes the effects of this stimulus on the subjects’ behavior or attitude. Is then compared to a control group, group of subjects who are not exposed to the experimental stimulus.oMedia experiments Albert Bandura (1973) exposed group of nursery school children, in person and through film, to an adult who hit and kicked an inflated “Bobo doll” these children played more aggressively for a short period following the exposure; through imitation and modeling children will duplicate or copy the behavior of others Viewing violence increases behavioral aggression, but acting aggressively also increases violent viewingViewing media violence during childhood is positively correlated with aggressive behavior in both adolescence and adulthoodoPolicy evaluation: Mandatory arrest of woman batterers
Evaluation Research: type of applied research concerned with assessing the impact of particular policies; helps us determine the extent to which our crime reduction strategies have had the desired effects, and it allows us to base our conclusions on more than hunch or intuition (pg. 63-64)•Observational Field Research and In-Depth InterviewingoEthnography: researchers hitting the streets to meet, observe, and interact with people in their natural environments (ethno meaning “people” and graphy meaning “to describe”) oObservational Field Research: another name for ethnography – gaining access to an the confidence of subjects are key issues in field research (Ex. Patty and Peter Adler – became friends with neighbors who turned out to be marijuana and cocaine traffickers)oCourtesy Stigma: works somewhat like guilt by association. It you allow yourself to be seen and treated as a drug addict, gang member, prostitute, or the like, you may be accepted by your subjects as “one of them” without actually having to commit crimes oIn-depth Interviewing: typically conducted in an unstructured manner, where the researcher and subject engage in an open-ended conversation-like exchangeoSnowball Sampling: technique where observer asks one subject to refer to observer to another oLife History Studies: focus on one individual; more or less biographical pieces of research combined with criminological insight or analysis oProfessional Criminals: those who devote the greater portion of their “working day” to the rational planning and commission of crimes for profit; also possess specialized skills that are learned from and passed on to others, and they associate with people who share a common argot (manner of speech) and lifestyle and who provide each other with camaraderie and mutual respect o