d. It facilitates the researcher’s rapport with families Response Feedback: Operational reasoning involves the identification of and discrimination among many alternatives and viewpoints. It focuses on the process (debating alternatives) rather than on the resolution. Nurses use operational reasoning to develop realistic, measurable health goals. Thus, operational reasoning takes abstract concepts and makes them focused, concrete, and, therefore, researchable. p. 6 Question 10 A master’s student knows next to nothing about Maslow’s theory related to hierarchy of needs but, on her advisor’s recommendation, decides to use it as a theoretical framework for her theory paper. The student goes to the library and accesses an old master’s thesis that also uses the theory and copies three pages, word for word. She uses the other student’s reference to Maslow’s work. This is an example of which of
the following? Answers: a. Fabrication b. Plagiarism c. Falsification d. Nonmaleficence Response Feedback: Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit, including those obtained through confidential review of others’ research proposals and manuscripts. Fabrication in research is the making up of results and recording or reporting them. Falsification of research is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record. The principle of beneficence requires the researcher to do good and “above all, do no harm. p.185 Question 11 A graduate student receives a mailed survey asking her to participate in research about unpleasant experiences in graduate school. She is asked to return the survey, and the instructions say, “Return of this instrument implies consent.” Why does this
constitute consent? Answers: a. The study is anonymous, so there is no risk of disclosure. b. Studies like this are exempt from institutional review board oversight, so consent is not required. c. Not returning the survey constitutes refusal, and subjects may indeed refuse by not completing the survey. The opposite is equally true. d. Only interventional research requires consent. Response Feedback: The requirements for written consent may be waived in research that “presents no more than minimal risk of harm to subjects and involves no procedures for which written consent is normally required outside of the research context.” For example, if questionnaires are used to collect relatively harmless data, a signed consent form from the subjects would not be required. The subject’s completion of the questionnaire may serve as consent. The top of the questionnaire might contain a statement such as “Your completion of this questionnaire indicates your consent to participate in this study.” p. 179 Question 12 A researcher conducting a study to examine linkages among age, gender, driver’s license suspension, and zip code poverty, educational level, and income, sourced
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- Fall '16
- Denise Cauble
- Nursing, researcher