g Schnall et al 2008 Other theorists have suggested that disgust may occur for

G schnall et al 2008 other theorists have suggested

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on the role of disgust in condemning immoral behaviors within groups (e.g. Schnall et al., 2008). Other theorists have suggested that disgust may occur for other reasons; for example, Rozin and colleagues (2008) suggest that individuals may be disgusted by stimuli that remind them of their own mortality or animal nature. Recently, a number of frameworks have taken a multidimensional approach to disgust elicitors. For example, Tybur, Liberman, and Griskevicius (2009) find only modest correlations between three types of disgust elicitors: pathogens, sexual behaviors, and moral behaviors. Importantly, each of these factors may differentially predict prejudice towards outgroups, depending on the features of the outgroup (e.g. behaviors, physical appearances). For instance, one intriguing study found that pathogen disgust, but not sexual or moral disgust, predicted the degree to which accents from foreign outgroups sounded “different” than ingroup accents (Reid et al., 2012). While understanding exactly what outgroup-related behaviors or stimuli elicit disgust is an important topic for future study, workarounds to these debates currently exist. One relevant development is the Intergroup Disgust Sensitivity Scale (ITG-DS; Hodson et al., 2013), a self- report survey that specifically measures disgust elicited by physical contact with outgroups (e.g. “After shaking hands with someone from another ethnic group, even if their hands were clean, I would want to wash my hands”).
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EMBODIED PREJUDICE 25 While the scale specifically refers to interacting with ethnic outgroups, scores on this scale have been found to uniquely predict attitudes towards a variety of outgroups, such as homeless individuals, AIDS victims, and sexual minorities (Hodson, et al., 2013). Unlike previous frameworks that focus on different types of disgust elicitors (e.g. sexual, pathogen avoidance, moral), the ITG-DS scores may encompass a wide variety of types of disgust (though this remains to be seen). In particular, it may be an especially valid predictor of behavior during intergroup contact, a topic that the disgust literature has not yet strongly explored. Interaction between disgust and social ideology. In the social psychology literature, past theorists have noted strong parallels between the function of disgust towards outgroups and the function of prejudice-related social ideologies. One prominent example is social dominance orientation (SDO; Pratto, Sidanius, Stallworth, & Malle, 1994), an ideology that attempts to justify status differences between social groups (example item: “some groups are just better than others”). Similar to SDO, which enhances social distance between groups, disgust has been proposed to increase social distance, as well by causing outgroups to be judged as more physically or morally impure than the ingroup (Haidt, Rozin, Mccauley, & Imada, 1997). Indeed, disgust sensitivity and SDO are positively correlated (Hodson & Costello, 2007).
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