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The ratings of organisational assertiveness are

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The ratings of organisational Assertiveness are somewhat higher than for societal Assertiveness, although food industry managers gave it a slightly lower rating than the other two industries. There is almost no difference between the “As Is” and the “Should Be” scores. In contrast, the male orientation evident in all industries was seen as unacceptable, and all three expressed a desire to shift this towards a more balanced position. The “Should Be” scores on Gender Egalitarianism are 1.5 - 2.8 standard deviations higher than the “As Is” scores.
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27 6. Previous Research on Leadership Leadership is a popular topic in magazines aimed at practising managers, and some of this material will be described later in this chapter. Academic research into leadership behaviours is more difficult to find. The leadership chapters in two recent New Zealand management and organisational behaviour textbooks (Inkson & Kolb, 1997; McLennan, 1995) include only five citations to indigenous leadership research, of which three are unpublished discussion papers. Some recent studies are beginning to consider the cultural influences of increasing ethnic diversity on New Zealand leadership. Ah Chong and Thomas (1995) discuss research into aspects of cross-cultural leadership in New Zealand, referring to a number of studies (see, for example, Love, 1993; Nedd & Marsh, 1983; Pringle & Henry, 1993) illustrating differences in style between New Zealand European, Maori and Polynesian leaders. With Treaty of Waitangi settlements leading to greater Maori investment in property, tourism and fishing industries, there is an increased interest in Maori management styles (Tapsell, 1997). As noted in the introduction to the culture section, however, the focus of the GLOBE study was on the dominant (New Zealand European) pattern of leadership. The following review of leadership research in New Zealand will therefore leave aside material on Maori and Pacific Island leadership styles. Just over twenty-five years ago, George Hines, a psychologist at Victoria University of Wellington, wrote a book called The New Zealand Manager (Hines, 1973). The work is based on survey research into the background, attitudes, business practices, motivation and psychological characteristics of over 2,400 New Zealand managers. This work, and others by the same author, has been viewed by some as marking the beginning of organisation behaviour as a research-based discipline in New Zealand (Inkson, 1987) Hines identified a number of characteristics of the business environment that he considered vital to an understanding of the nature of New Zealand management. Two in particular are the relative classlessness of New Zealand society, and the small size of New Zealand firms. He argued that management style in New Zealand was influenced by the lack of a formal class structure. Individuality and independence were valued, together with an emphasis on
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28 performance rather than social status. New Zealand (at that time) also lacked the large salary differentials that, in some countries, create a divide between labour and management.
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