Benefits of breastfeeding: For mothers: delays the return of regular ovulation, conserves iron stores, may protect vs. breast/ovarian cancer. For infants:provides appropriate composition/balance of nutrients, with increased bioavailability, provides hormones that promote physiological development, improves cognitive ability development, protects vs. many infections, may protect vs. chronic diseases later in life and protects vs. food allergies!Other:cost effective, environmental savings (no need to package, manufacture, garbage etc.) Why is breast milk so good?-An excellent source of nutrients-Conveys a lot of immune factors: protects vs. infection by providing antiviral/antibacterial agents and infection inhibitors. Common illnesses less likely (ear infection), and makes them less prone to develop stomach/intestinal disorders (1stmonth) and less vomiting/diarrhea.-Colostrum: thick, sticky, yellowish fluid low in fat and packed with protein, vitamins, minerals and most importantly antibodies. It is a natural vaccine/laxative that is produced during the first 2/3 days of lactation, so babies should be breast fed a lot more during this time. -Macronutrients:CHO: lactose, easy to digest and enhances mineral absorptionsLipids: provide the main source of energyProtein: largely alpha lactalbumin (easily digestible to baby) and lactoferrin (helps absorb iron). -Minerals: Calcium: ideal content for infant bone growthSodium:breast milk is low in sodiumIron:limited amount but highly absorbable. Deficiency rarely seen in infants, but iron dwindles as lactation progresses. BY 6 MONTHS: feeding the infant iron-fortified cereal is recommended.Zinc:better absorbed that from cow’s milk due to the presence of a zinc binding protein. Fluoride:if water supply is deficient in fluoride, then supplement is recommended.
Cow’s milk: INAPPROPRIATE REPLACEMENTProvides little iron/vitamin CInfant’s digestive tract may be sensitive to the protein in it, could cause bleeding & worsen iron deficiency. Stresses the infants immature kidneysAFTER 12 MONTHS: baby is obtaining 2/3rdof daily energy from cereal/fruits/veggies, WHOLE’s cow milk can be given (fortified with Vit A & D), reduced fat milk not recommended until at least 2 YEARS OLD.First foods: can be introduced into the diet as the infant becomes physically ready to handle them. Considerations:Nutrient needs (iron then vit C)Physical readiness Allergies need to be detected and controlledREADINESS STAGES:Newborns: can only swallow liquids, stomach/intestines are immature, can digest milk sugar but not starch4 Months: tongue can move against palate to swallow semisolid food, most begin to digest starch. WHEN INTRODUCED NEW FOODS: infants who are physically ready for them will thrive on them and develop new skills. INDICATIONS OF READINESS: about 6 months old, can sit/support and can control head movements.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 30 pages?
- Winter '07