o Use active listening Paraphrasing Acknowledge your partner’s frustration before providing your own explanation. “It sounds like you’re saying…” Form of perception-checking Provides respect and validation for the partner Acknowledge the legitimacy of other’s opinions and communicate respect for the position. o COMMUNICATION IS KEY. ° ° The definition of gender Gender: Perception of sex o Sex references biological structure (dependent on genitals), whereas gender references our perception of that sex. Socially constructed roles regarding what it means to be “masculine” or “feminine” in our society The attitudes, values, and beliefs associated with and expected of females and males The definition of gender schema: Gender script and information processing o Information that someone has learned about gender; Cognitive organization o Schema references a variety of things Ex: Pink is typically associated with females/femininity. o Gender script: How people of gender should behave/what they are supposed to do in certain situations. Ex: Men typically propose to women. The definition of gender identity: Three theories explaining the development of gender o Gender identity: The degree to which one sees him/herself as masculine or feminine based on society’s definition of appropriate gender roles. o Identification theory Freud
Not testable; Very biased Recognized importance of biological and social environment Developmental model o Cognitive development theory Kids learn gender by way of categorizing objects. Categorization is based solely on what they are exposed to. Gender is a highly visible category. o Social learning theory Children learn “appropriate” gender behavior via reinforcement, punishment, and modeling/imitation through their parents and peers. ° ° Gender differences – Do they exist? In what ways? Nurture: Social structural theory o Male-female differences are of paramount importance and highly noticeable. Given that they exist, they are self-reinforcing Creates a hierarchy Nature: Biology/evolutionary theory o Gender differences are due to men’s larger size and physical capabilities as compared to women. o Gender differences stem from our desire to pass on our genes and the strategies we developed to do so (e.g., Buss, 1995; Buss & Kenrick, 1998). o Our animalistic goal in life is to pass on our genes [via reproduction]. The best way for a man to accomplish this is to impregnate many different women [as there are few risks associated with this for the male]. (Evolutionary) Women would rather be focused on having fewer children and providing more care for those few. (Biology) Other differences o Over 50% of men report thinking about sex daily; Women less than 20% o Men report more arousal and fantasies.
o Men cause more fights about “not enough”.
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