According to stevenson 2009 through sustainability

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According to Stevenson, 2009, through sustainability consideration, the service design is able to minimize cost and input used, recycling and reuse of the returned product which is potential for the quality growth for the operation. The capability of the business organization to incorporate the design of products in the friendly way is called the manufacturing design. The key issues that are to be considered for manufacturing design according to Stevenson, (2009), are as given below: The most important key issue is that it is easy of fabrication and assembly in terms of cost, quality and productivity which means that the manufacturing design must be able to consider the terms of cost minimization and use inputs to attain the maximum output of maximum quality. The efficiency is achieved from manufacturing design which is most determining factor for cost, productivity, quality maintenance and the easiest way of providing service. These factors play a vital role in such factors determination. (Stevenson, 2009). 5.3.4 PROCESS PLANNING A Framework for Process Design Process design can be viewed as an interactive exercise. That is, problems are solved one at a time and sequentially; then after each stage, or perhaps after several stages, the previous stages are reexamined to see if later steps have affected the best way in which these steps should have been designed. This procedure is illustrated in Fig. 5.1.
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60 5.3.4.1 Product Planning Product planning serves as an input to process design. However, in most cases the responsibility or this phase rests with groups, such as marketing and engineering, which are generally found outside the domain of process design. It is early in this stage that the perceived needs of the consumer are identified. If the process is service-oriented, these needs will be reflected in the proposed quality, speed, cost, and reliability of the service. If, on the other hand, the process will be manufacturing- oriented, then these needs will be reflected in the product‘s proposed quality, cost, function, reliability and appearance. When these service or product parameters are transformed into a product, design, it is essential that a cross-functional alliance between product, planning and process design groups be established in order to ensure that the product objectives can indeed be profitably met. Otherwise only local goals may be pursued. For example, the marketing and engineering departments working alone may design a product which is very costly to manufacture and very difficult to service. In short, the transformation process should be considered well before the design is finalized. This can usually be accomplished in the following way: Fig. 5.1 The process planning task. (From Howard L. Timma and Michael F. Pohlen, The Production Function in Business, Richard D. Irwin, Inc., Homewood, (II., 1970, p. 302.)
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61 Information from the product development stage can be directed to those responsible for process R&D. They in turn can determine if the process capability
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