Legislation such as the dodd frank wall street reform

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Legislation such as the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act signed into law by United States (US) President Obama in July 2010. The Act requires organisations involved in the commercial development of oil, natural gas, or minerals to report annually to the US. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) information about payments made to the US, government and foreign governments for such development. Subsequently, since 2002, French companies have been authorised to include sustainability information for all countries where they operate in an annual report. The annual sustainability report is also required to include information on: Measures taken to ensure compliance with applicable environmental legislation; Measures taken to improve energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy;
35 Conditions of soil, air, and water use, as well as soil discharges having a serious effect on the environment; Measures taken to avoid threats to biological balance, nature, and protected animal and plant species; Investments made to prevent adverse impacts of operations on the environment; Training and other internal environmental management services; Steps taken for environmental evaluation or certification; Environmental communication to workers, and Measures for reducing risk and responding to off-site pollution. All of this legislation is placing pressure and impacting on improved legislation on HS&E in African countries. These efforts to increase transparency about operations located beyond domestic borders may continue to be a factor as African countries strengthen their HS&E regulatory structures. 2.4.4.1 HS&E legal framework in Nigeria The Laws governing Nigeria are influenced by several sources some of which include the English law comprising of the common law, the doctrines of equity, the statutes of general application in force in England on January 1, 1900, statutes, and subsidiary legislation on specified matters, international law such as treaties, and customary international laws. Second is the Nigerian legislation which consists of Ordinances, Acts, Laws, Degrees and Edicts, other sources include customary law and the Nigerian case Law (Judicial precedents), environmental standards and guidelines for the petroleum industry in Nigeria 1991 and the constitution of Nigeria. Nigerian legislation represents laws enacted by the various tiers of government within the Nigerian federation, including Statutes enacted before 1 October 1954 by the central legislation (Ordinances). After attaining its independence from Great Britain all such ordinances were re-designated as Acts. Also called Acts are all laws made by the parliament at the Federal level after the country gained independence. During the days of Military rule in Nigeria the Military
36 government ruled by decrees which are supreme laws of the land, while the Laws made by Military Governors of States or Regions during the military dictatorship

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