o. The pair of wings of each side function as a single wing in flight. p. They are hooked together by hook-like structures known as hamuli. q. The flight: Bees fly at an average speed of 24 km/h and wings beat at about 200 cycles/second. r. Longitudinal and dorso-ventral (vertical) muscles, also called indirect or fly muscles, bend the thorax (flexible exoskeleton) moving wings up and down 6. The Abdomen a. Composed of seven sub-segments; the first is the propodeum (attached to the thorax). b. The segments overlap with one another (as a telescope). c. Each segment has two large plates, a tergum (back of the abdomen) and a sternum (belly of the abdomen). d. Segments are connected with one another by inter-segmental membranes. e. Within the abdomen are the whole reproductive and excretory systems and much of the digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous, glandular and defense systems. 7. The Digestive System a. The alimentary tract extends from the mouth to the anus b. The mouth receives food from the mandibles or from the food canal (end of the proboscis). c. Food passes into the oesophagus (a tube) and from there into the crop or honey stomach (nectar transport). d. The crop is connected to the ventriculus through the proventriculus, a valve that allows or prevents the passage of food. e. The ventriculus is the "real" stomach, where digestion and absorption takes place. f. The ventriculus epithelial cells secret enzymes for food digestion. g. Food gets surrounded by the peritrophic membrane as it enters the ventriculus; enzymes and digested products diffuse through this membrane. h. Nutrients from digested food are absorbed into the haemolymph (blood). i. Food waste passes to the anterior intestine, a mere tube, and then into the rectum, where it accumulates until discarded. j. While in the rectum, water is reabsorbed from the wasted materials. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com
8. The Excretory System a. Composed by the Malpighian tubules, which serve as haemolymph (blood) filters (similar to kidneys). b. There are more than 100 tubules winding among the internal organs and in contact with the haemolymph c. They discard their waste at the junction of the intestine and ventriculus. 9. The Circulatory System a. Haemolymph (blood) is a clear liquid composed of blood cells and plasma. b. The blood cells, known as haemocytes, are part of the bee's immune system (defense against germs and parasites) and the plasma is a liquid that carries nutrients and wastes. c. The circulatory system is open except for the heart and the aorta that are closed organs. d. Haemolymph bathes all the organs and muscles of the bee's body. e. The haemolymph moves by the heart and aorta (located on the dorsal part of the abdomen) contractions, as well as by the contraction of the abdomen's dorsal and ventral diaphragms 10. The Respiratory System a. Gases (O 2 and CO 2 ) are moved through a series of tubes and tubules known as tracheae and tracheoles that are connected to the exterior of the insect's body by spiracles (openings) 11. The Nervous System a.
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