ELECTRONIC STRUCTURES AND BONDING Notes

Sp 2 hybridization bonding in molecules containing a

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sp 2 Hybridization : bonding in molecules containing a double bond One 2s and two 2p atomic orbitals combine (hybridize) to form three identical sp 2 hybrid orbitals with triangular planar orientation (angles 120 o ). The remaining 2p orbital is perpendicular to the sp 2 plane. Bonding in CH 2 CH 2 : the three sp 2 hybrid orbitals overlap head- on to form σ bonds. The unhybridized 2p orbitals overlap sideways to produce one π bond. C=C bond strength is 152 kcal/ mol, bond length is 1.33 Å.
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8 sp Hybridization : bonding in molecules containing an atom with a triple bond or two double bonds One 2s and one 2p atomic orbitals combine (hybridize) to form two identical sp linear hybrid orbitals (angle 180 o ) on the x-axis. The two remaining 2p orbitals are perpendicular on the y and z axis. Bonding in CHCH : the two sp hybrid orbitals overlap head-on to form σ bonds. The unhybridized 2p orbitals overlap sideways to produce two π bonds. bond strength is 200 kcal/mol (strongest!), bond length is 1.20 Å (shortest!). Bonding in CH 3 + , CH 3 •, CH 3 - The carbon atoms in both CH 3 + and CH 3 • are sp 2 hybridized . The remaining unhybridized p orbital is perpendicular to the plane of the sp 2 orbitals, and it is empty in CH 3 + while contains one unpaired electron in CH 3
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9 The carbon atom in CH 3 - is sp 3 hybridized . Three sp 3 orbitals overlap head-on to form σ bonds and the fourth sp 3 orbital contains a pair of nonbonding electrons.
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