Culturally congruent health care occurs when healthcare providers and healthcare services recipients collaborate with an attitude of cultural respect and humility. They can negotiate mutually satisfactory strategies that address health care promotion, restoration of health, disease prevention, or realization of good health as may be defined by the patient or client needing health care (Kirmayer, 2012). Providers of healthcare need an attitudinal framework, and skill set to accommodate, appreciate, and negotiate individual and cultural variations in values, beliefs, education, lifestyle, and other elements that comprise a competent cultural context. 1.3. Significance There is much literature concerning the hazards associated with ignoring cultural factors. Some of this literature have documented that culturally competent healthcare improves the accuracy of diagnosis, increases the level of adherence to recommended treatment, reduces the chances of inappropriate emergency room service. Based on this documented evidence and experiences, it is clear that cultural competence is not only an ethical nicety but also a clinical imperative as well as a financial necessity. Therefore, this research will highlight the importance of understanding cultural competence within the healthcare providers so that these objectives can be achieved. 1.4. Problem statement For several decades, health care experts have documented ethnic and racial disparities that exist in healthcare systems and acknowledge their complexity and how they contribute to
UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL COMPETENCE BY HCPS 6 substandard healthcare services for the minority. Poor healthcare service outcomes and patient outcomes can occur when health care providers do not practice a high level of cultural competency in providing healthcare services (de Almeida Vieira & Fernandes, 2016). The majority of healthcare providers are yet to understand the language barriers, cultural beliefs, and food preferences that impact healthcare practices as well as physical variations among different ethnic groups, and how these factors affect the quality of healthcare they provide. As a result, it is important to develop a framework that may facilitate the understanding of culturally competent practices by the healthcare providers so that they can provide quality healthcare services. 1.5. Aims 1. To assess the capacity of healthcare provider educators and healthcare provision education programs that can promote culturally congruent health care practices. 2. To investigate how to incorporate cultural competency into the training and education programs for healthcare providers. 3. To explore the interventions that can improve cultural competencies in the healthcare systems. Chapter II 2.1. Literature review Linguistic and cultural competence refers to a set of congruent attitudes, behaviors, policies, and beliefs that come together in an agency, system or among individuals of a given profession to enable effective work in multicultural environments. Cultures are integrated patterns of behaviors that include thoughts, language, communications, actions, beliefs, values, customs, and institutions of religious, ethnic, racial, or social groups (Kirmayer, 2012).
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