9 premise there are more injuries in professional

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9. Premise: There are more injuries in professional football today than there were twenty years ago. Premise: If there are more injuries, then today’s players suffer higher risks. Premise: If today’s players suffer higher risks, then they should be paid more. Conclusion: Today’s players should be paid more. 10. Premise: The clunk comes only when I pedal. Conclusion: The problem is in the chain, the crank, or the pedals. Exercise 2-3 1. Conclusion: There is a difference in the octane ratings between the two grades of gasoline. 2. Premise: Kera, Sherry, and Bobby were all carded at JJ’s. Premise: They all look as though they’re about thirty. Conclusion: I’ll be carded JJ's. 3. Premise: Seventy percent of the freshmen at State College come from wealthy families. Conclusion: About the same percentage of all State College students come from wealthy families. 4. Conclusion: Scrub jays can be expected to be aggressive when they’re breeding. 5. Premise: Marietta told me her parents benefited from the cut in the capital gains tax. Conclusion: Marietta comes from a wealthy family. 6. Premise: According to Nature, today’s thoroughbred racehorses do not run any faster than their grandparents did. Premise: Human Olympic runners are at least 20 percent faster than their counterparts of fifty IM – 2 | 2
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years ago. Conclusion: Racehorses have reached their physical limits but humans have not. 7. Conclusion: Dogs are smarter than cats. 8. Premise: If this bucket has a hole in it, then it will leak. Premise: It doesn’t leak. Conclusion: It doesn’t have a hole in it. 9. Premise: She's from Alamo Polytech. Premise: The last person we hired from there was rotten. Conclusion: We shouldn’t take a chance on this new candidate. 10. Unstated conclusion: She is not still interested in me. Exercise 2-4 1. Deductive demonstration 2. Inductive support 3. Deductive demonstration 4. Inductive support 5. Deductive demonstration 6. Inductive support (an IBE) 7. Inductive support 8. Deductive demonstration 9. Inductive support 10. Deductive demonstration Exercise 2-5 1. b 2. a 3. c 4. b 5. c 6. a 7. b 8. a 9. a 10. b IM – 2 | 3
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Exercise 2-6 1. Inductive 2. True 3. False 4. True 5. True 6. False 7. Deductive 8. False 9. False 10. Inductive 11. False 12. False 13. True 14. False 15. False 16. False 17. False 18. True Exercise 2-7 1. Deductive demonstration 2. Inductive support 3. Deductive demonstration 4. Inductive support 5. Deductive demonstration 6. Inductive support 7. Two arguments here: In the first argument, if the speaker is assuming that the universe’s not having arisen by chance increases the probability that God exists, then his or her argument is inductive. Likewise, in the second argument, if the speaker is assuming that an increase in the number of believing physicists increases the probably that God exists, then his or her argument is inductive.
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