Tobacco use for more information on the harmful

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tobacco use For more information on the harmful effects of tobacco and secondhand smoke, see Chapter 21, page 538. HS_HEALTH_U08_C26_L2 12/8/03 5:44 PM Page 682
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683 Lesson 2 Cancer T YPES OF C ANCER Organ Affected (new cases/year) Skin (1 million) Most common type of cancer in the United States Breast (205,000) Second leading cause of cancer death for women Prostate (189,000) Found mostly in men over age 55 Lung (169,400) Leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States Colon/Rectum (148,000) Second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States Mouth (30,000) Occurs mostly in people over 40 Cervix (15,000) Testicle (7,000) Most common cancer in men ages 15 to 34 Some Risk Factors Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun, tanning beds, sun lamps, and other sources Genetic factors, obesity, alcohol use, physical inactivity Possible hereditary link, possible link to high-fat diet Exposure to cigarette smoke, radon, or asbestos Risk increases with age; closely related to colorectal cancer Use of tobacco, chewing tobacco, or alcohol History of infection with HPV (human papillomavirus) Undescended testicle; family history of testicular cancer Symptoms Change on the skin, especially a new growth, a mole or freckle that changes, or a sore that won’t heal Unusual lump; nipple that thickens, changes shape, dimples, or has discharge Frequent or painful urination; inability to urinate; weak or interrupted flow of urine; blood in urine or semen; pain in lower back, hips, or upper thighs No initial symptoms; later symptoms include cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing up blood, hoarseness Often no initial symptoms; later, blood in feces; frequent pain, aches, or cramps in stomach; change in bowel habits; weight loss Sore or lump on mouth that doesn’t heal; unusual bleeding; pain or numbness on lip, mouth, tongue, or throat; feeling that something is caught in the throat; pain with chewing or swallowing; change in voice Usually no symptoms in early stages; later, abnormal vaginal bleeding, increased vaginal discharge Small, hard, painless lump on testicle; sudden accumulation of fluid in scrotum; pain in region between scrotum and anus Screening and Early Detection Methods physical exam, biopsies self-exam, mammogram blood test chest X ray test for blood in the stool, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy dental/oral exam Pap test self-exam HS_HEALTH_U08_C26_L2 12/8/03 5:45 PM Page 683
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Smokeless tobacco use is a major risk factor in the development of oral cancer, which affects the lips, mouth, and throat. Oral can- cer kills roughly one person every hour. You can greatly reduce your risk of cancer by avoiding all forms of tobacco as well as secondhand smoke. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Some viruses, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) and the hepatitis B virus, cause cervical and liver cancers, respectively. The risk of acquiring these pathogens can be reduced by abstinence from sexual activity and from injecting drugs through infected needles.
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