Finished cattle - Fed cattle whose time in the feedlot is completed and are now ready for slaughter. Gestation - Time from conception until the female gives birth, an average of 285 days in cattle. Heifer - Young female bovine cow prior to the time that she has produced her first calf. Natural beef - Refers to beef from cattle that have not been fed growth stimulants or antibiotics. Packing plant - Facility in which cattle are slaughtered and processed. Quality grades - Grades such as Prime, Choice, and Select that group slaughter cattle and carcasses into value- and palatability-based categories. Grades are determined primarily by marbling and age of animal. Ration - Feed fed to an animal during a 24-hour period. Red meat - Meat from cattle, sheep, swine, and goats. See also white meat. Replacement heifers - Heifers, usually between 6 months and 16 months of age that have been selected to replace cows in the breeding herd. Retail cuts - Cuts of beef in sizes that are purchased by the consumer. Ruminant - Mammal whose stomach has four parts--rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum. Cattle, sheep, goats, deer, and elk are ruminants. Steer - Bovine male castrated prior to puberty. Subprimal cuts - Smaller-than-primal cuts, such as when the primal round is split into top round, bottom round, eye round, and sirloin tip. Subprimal cuts are used in boxed beef programs.
210 Applied Economics 3411/5411, 2018 Lecture Notes Copyright © 2018 Edward Usset. All rights reserved. 4. Swine Production Glossary () Barrow - castrated male swine Boar - uncastrated male swine Farrowing: The process of giving birth to piglets. Farrowing operation: A business that breeds pigs and then sells them to another business, which will raise them to market size. Farrow to finish operation: A business that breeds pigs, raises them until they are ready to be slaughtered, and then sells them for profit. Feeder pig operation - breeder sells his grower pigs to a finishing operation to grow them out to market weight Finishing operation - buys feeder pigs and feeds them to 240 to 250 lbs. Gilt - young female swine, up to and including primiparous (1st litter) females; about 6 mos. old and 200 to 220lbs Grower pig - pig being grown out to market weight, usually takes about 16 weeks Hog - generic term, usually applied to growing swine Market weight - 240 to 250 lbs. Pig - generic term, usually applied to immature swine Sow - adult female swine Weaner pig - from weaning up to about 40 lbs.
211 Applied Economics 3411/5411, 2018 Lecture Notes Copyright © 2018 Edward Usset. All rights reserved. 5. Dairy Glossary ( ) Bull: An adult male dairy animal. Young male dairy animals are known as bull calves. Butter: Butter is produced by churning the fat from milk or cream until it solidifies.
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