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-Outside of the specified job requirements-Requires attempt to use power bases-Includes efforts to influence the goals, criteria, or processes used for decision making
-Including:oWithholding key information from decision makersoJoining a coalitionowhistleblowingospreading rumorsoleaking confidential informationoexchanging favors with other in the org for mutual benefitolobbying on behalf of or against a particular individual or decision alternativeReality of PoliticsManagers show that most believe political behavior is a major part of org life and report some use of it both ethical and necessary, as long as it doesn’t directly harm anyone. It is a necessary evil and necessary to get things done. There is no real training in its effective usage.Orgs are made up of individuals and groups with different values, goals and interests which breed potential for conflict over allocation of limited resources forcing competition among members. The most important factor leading to politics within org is the realization that most of the “facts” used to allocate the limited resources are open to interpretation. It is this large and ambiguous middle ground of org life – where the facts don’tspeak for themselves that politics flourish.Because decisions have to be made in a climate of ambiguity people within org will use whatever influence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests. This creates the activities we all politicking.“Organizational Politics” vs. “Effective Management”PoliticalEffect Management1.Blaming othersvs. Fixing responsibility2.“Kissing up”vs.Developing working relationships3.Apple polishingvs.Demonstrating loyalty
4.Passing the buckvs.Delegating authority5.Covering your rearvs.Documenting decisions6.Creating conflictvs.Encouraging change and innovation7.Forming coalitionsvs.Facilitating teamwork8.Whistle-blowingvs.Improving efficiency9.Schemingvs.Planning ahead10. Overachievingvs.Competent and capable11. Ambitiousvs.Career minded12. Opportunisticvs.Astute13. Cunningvs.Practical minded14. Arrogantvs.Confident15. Perfectionistvs.Attentive to detailsCauses & Consequences of Political BehaviorIndividual Factors – at the individual level, certain personality traits, needs, and other factors likely to be related to political behavior:-High self-monitors oMore sensitive to social cues, oExhibits higher levels of social conformityoIs more likely to be skilled in political behavior than the low self-monitor-Possess an internal locus of controloBelieve they can control their environment are more prone to take a proactivestance and attempt to manipulate situations in their favor – Machiavellian personality – comfortable using politics as a means to further self-interest-Have a high need for power oExpectations of success influences the degree to which they will pursue illegitimate means of political action.