Seperation of power having the legislative executive and judicial branch of the

Seperation of power having the legislative executive

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“Seperation of power” , having the legislative, executive, and judicial branch of the government who keep each other in check by separating power equally. (checks and balances) Too much power in the hands of any one person or group led to corruption and collapse. Revolution(s) Influenced the first thinkers to apply the tools of the Scientific Revolution to problems of politics Discussed Book: Leviathan In 1776, his ideas would be echoed in the American Declaration of Independence. Discussed book: Two Treatises of Government The men who wrote the U.S. Constitution, especially James Madison, who used Montesquieu's ideas as a basis for the “checks and balances” which give each of the US’ branches of government power
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over the others. Discussed books: The Spirit of Law and Persian Letters Voltaire Jean-Jacques Rousseau Background and Thoughts Voltaire was born in France in 1694 and was early known for his fame as a writer and being a witty participant in the Paris salons. Voltaire believed passionately in reforming society in the name of justice and human happiness. He warned against what he saw as superstition, error, and oppression. With biting humor, he attacked the French court and the power of the Catholic clergy. Rousseau was born in Switzerland in 1712 and as he was known as a writer of essays he was a brilliant and controversial figure, disagreeing with other Enlightenment thinkers in many topic. People were born naturally good but get corrupted by civilization. “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” Rousseau saw government and laws as the chains that restrict people’s freedoms. If people did not have to obey a ruler, he thought, people would be happy.
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