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Study Guide abnormal Exam 4 review

Reinforcement programs that use concrete rewards

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Reinforcement programs that use concrete rewards Cognitive methods seek to enhance children’s social problem-solving abilities through skills-building, modeling, and role-playing What are behavioral treatments for Conduct disorder and ADHD? What neurotransmitter do most ADHD medications target? - Operant conditioning principles - Reinforcement, punishment, and extinction - Shape prosocial behavior and decrease defiant or impulsive behavior - Group therapy to improve social techniques - Contingency management - Modifying behavior by changing conditions that led to, or are produced by it - Parent management training – improving parent-child interactions - Chapter 15 Cognitive Disorders Know the characteristics/symptoms of each of these: Delirium, Amnestic Disorder, and Dementia. Be able to distinguish each from the others, if given an example. - Three types of cognitive disorders - Delirium o Impaired cognition and a marked change in awareness o Two main symptoms : Changes in consciousness Diminished cognitive functioning, particularly in attention o Rapid, acute onset over hours to days o Decreased awareness of external environment o May focus on internal stimuli o Easily distracted, poor concentration - Amnestic disorder o Impaired cognition confined to memory
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o Impaired memory while other mental processes remain intact o Difficulty storing new information and recalling stored information o Memory impairment can be: Transient Lasting a few days to a maximum of one month May result from seizures Chronic o Lasting longer than 1 month o Caused by one of two neurological factors o Substance use o General medical conditions - Dementia o Impaired memory plus one other impaired cognitive function such as perception, attention, or language use All three mainly affect older adults - Memory deficits plus: o At least one of the following types of cognitive impairment: Aphasia –difficulty remembering the specific words Apraxia – problems with executing motor tasks Agnosia – problems recognizing friends, family, or even themselves in the mirror Executive function problems – difficulties in planning, initiating, organizing, abstracting, and sequencing o Arises over a period of time Typically becomes worse, but sometimes remains static or reverses - Know some of the possible causes of each condition, and the difference in time course and prognosis between Delirium and Dementia. - Delirium can result from : Effects of a psychoactive substance such as alcohol or a medication A medical condition Intoxication: Acute onset (minutes to hours) after substance is taken In older adults, typically the result of prescribed medication Substance withdrawal o Delirium Due to a General Medical Condition: Infection, Dehydration, Electrolytic imbalance, Stroke or heart attack, Brain tumor - Amnestic Disorder - Caused by one of two neurological factors: o Substance use o General medical conditions - Dementia: Arises over a period of time o
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