94%(140)132 out of 140 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 13 - 14 out of 14 pages.
Quantitative analysis: Statistically reliable and generalisable results.In quantitativeresearch we classify features, count them, and even constructmore complex statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed. Findings can be generalised to a larger population, and direct comparisons can be made between two corpora, so long as valid sampling and significancetechniques have been used. Thus, quantitative analysis allows us to discover which phenomena are likely to be genuine reflections of the behaviour of a language or variety, and which are merely chance occurences. The more basic task of just looking at a single language variety allows one to get a precise picture of the frequency and rarity of particular phenomena, and thus their relative normality or abnomrality.However, the picture of the data which emerges from quantitative analysis is less rich than that obtained from qualitative analysis. For statistical purposes, classifications have to be of the hard-and-fast (so-called "Aristotelian" type). An item either belongs to class xor it doesn't. So in the above example about the phrase "the red flag" we would have to decide whether to classify "red" as "politics" or "colour". As can be seen, many linguistic terms and phenomena do not therefore belong to simple, single categories: rather they are more consistent with the recent notion of "fuzzy sets" as in the redexample. Quantatitive analysis is therefore an idealisationof the data in some cases. Also, quantatitve analysis tends to sideline rare occurences. To ensure that certain statistical tests (such as chi-squared) provide reliable results, it is essential that minimum frequencies are obtained - meaning that categories may have to be collapsed into one another resulting in a loss of data richness.A recent trendFrom this brief discussion it can be appreciated that both qualitative and quantitative analyses have something to contribute to corpus study. There hasbeen a recent move in social science towards multi-methodapproaches
which tend to reject the narrow analytical paradigms in favour of the breadth of information which the use of more than one method may provide. In any case, as Schmied (1993) notes, a stage of qualitative research is often a precursor for quantitative analysis, since before linguistic phenomena can be classified and counted, the categories for classification must first be identified.Schmied demonstrates that corpus linguistics could benefit as much as any field from multi-method research.