A in the latter converse accident hasty

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a)      In the latter  (converse accident (hasty generalisation)) , one argues that since many or most  atypical members of a class have a specified property, therefore all members of the class  (distributively) do also. b)      In the former  (fallacy of composition),  one argues that since all of the members of a class have a specified property therefore the class itself (collectively) has that property. The difference between the  fallacy of division  and that of  accident  is that, a)      The latter  (accident)  argues that since most members of a class have a specified property  therefore any particular member or subclass of members, no matter how atypical, must have that  property also. b)      The former ( fallacy of division)  argues that since a class itself (collectively) has a specified  property therefore any member or subclass of members of the class must have that property also   1.6  SUBTOPIC 4: How to Avoid Fallacious Reasoning  
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Fallacies are pitfalls into which any of us may tumble in our reasoning. There is no sure general way  to avoid fallacies. a)      To avoid fallacies of relevance requires constant vigilance and awareness of the many ways in which irrelevance can intrude. A realization of the flexibility of language and the multiplicity of its use  will keep us from mistaking an exhortation to accept and approve a conclusion for an argument  designed to prove that conclusion true. b)      Fallacies of ambiguity are subtle things. Words are slippery, and most of them have a variety  of different senses or meanings. Where these different meanings are confused in the formulation of  an argument, the reasoning is fallacious. c)      To avoid the various fallacies of ambiguity, we must have and keep the meanings of our terms  clearly in mind. One way to accomplish this is by defining the key terms that are used. d)     And since shifts in the meanings of terms can make arguments fallacious, ambiguity can be  avoided by careful definition of the terms involved. Definition is an important matter for anyone  interested in the study of logi 1.40 SUMMARY  The importance of studying and understanding fallacious thinking cannot be  underestimated. The study of fallacious arguments, for familiarity and understanding helps  us to avoid being misled by them. There are many people around us who purport to profess  knowledge but when we subject their thinking to scrutiny its only ignorance that comes  afore. A multitude of human beings thrive on deception; they incessantly beg sympathy and  pretence defines their character. Failure to understand the kind of fallacious arguments will 
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